Category Archives: Pakistan

India Says It Hit Pakistan Terror Camps After Attack on Army

Modi

India says strikes conducted Wednesday; Pakistan denies attack

India said it attacked terrorist camps just across the border in Pakistan, the biggest military escalation since a standoff 17 years ago, as Prime Minister Narendra Modi retaliated for a deadly strike against Indian soldiers earlier this month.

Read more » Bloomberg
See more » http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-09-29/india-attacked-pakistan-terror-camps-says-no-more-ops-planned

Pakistan isolated in world focussed on horrors of terror: Indian diplomats

pak-india-flagBy IANS – By Arul Louis

UNITED NATIONS: Pakistan’s campaign on Kashmir at the UN has fallen flat and Islamabad has been isolated in a world focused on the horrors of terror, according to senior Indian officials basking in the afterglow of what they see as a diplomatic victory.

Terrorism is a primary concern for countries around the world and of the about 131 countries that have spoken as of Friday morning at the UN General Assembly summit, “90 per cent” raised the issue ..

More » The Economic Times
http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/pakistan-isolated-in-world-focussed-on-horrors-of-terror-indian-diplomats/articleshow/54490563.cms

US lawmaker accuses Pakistan of ruling through jihadist extremism

Brad ShermanWASHINGTON: Alleging that Pakistan is using jihadist extremism to administer and is bent upon extinguishing other cultures in the country, a top US lawmaker has warned Islamabad that it might be headed for 1971 like partition soon if it continues to do so.

“Those who think that they can keep Pakistan together by attacking and extinguishing other cultures with jihadist extremism should go visit Dhaka,” Congressman Brad Sherman, ranking member of the House Foreign Affairs Sub-Committee on Asia and the Pacific said at an event of Sindhi Foundation, Washington.

More » The Economic Times
http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/us-lawmaker-accuses-pakistan-of-ruling-through-jihadist-extremism/articleshow/54516863.cms?utm_source=contentofinterest

Japanese researchers help unravel mystery of the Indus civilization

KOJI KAMIYA, Nikkei staff writer

20131211_indus_medium

TOKYO — A five-year study by a Japanese research team could change the accepted view of the ancient Indus Valley civilization.

The study found that thousands of years ago, several cities in the Indus Valley, in what is today Pakistan and India, created a trade network that became a multicultural, multilingual civilization, and not a society founded on centralized authoritarian rule as previously believed. Many characteristics of this ancient civilization can be seen today in societies of southern Asia, and these links between the ancient and the modern are arousing researchers’ interest.

The fresh image of the Indus civilization is being painted by a team of researchers led by Professor Emeritus Toshiki Osada of the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, which is based in Kyoto. The results of five years of research, known as the Indus Project, were published in October by the Kyoto University Press as “Indus: Exploring the Fundamental World of South Asia” and “The Riddle of the Indus Civilization,” both compiled by Osada.

Read more » NIKKEI ASIAN REVIEW 
See more » http://asia.nikkei.com/magazine/20131219-Power-play/Culture/Japanese-researchers-help-unravel-mystery-of-the-Indus-civilization

The Sindh Foundation announces event on Sept 25

WASHINGTON, DC: The Sindhi Foundation has announced to have an event on Sunday, September 25 honoring Congressman Brad Sherman. In which former Sindh assembly speaker Sayed Jalal Mahmood Shah would attend the session. Mr. Jalal would discuss about the current situation of Sindh and Sindhis with Congressman Sherman.

Read more » Online Indus
See more » http://www.onlineindus.com/the-sindh-foundation-announces-event-on-sept-25/

US lawmakers move bill to designate Pakistan a terrorist state

USA PakIn a shocking setback to Islamabad, two US lawmakers have moved a bill to designate Pakistan as a ‘state sponsor of terrorism’, Times of India reported Wednesday.

The move testifies to growing complexity of relations between the two ostensibly major allies in the ‘war against terror.’  The bill, HR 6069 or the Pakistan State Sponsor of Terrorism Designation Act, enjoins the US administration to make a formal call on the matter within four months of its passage.

Read more » The Express Tribune
See more » http://tribune.com.pk/story/1185650/us-lawmakers-move-bill-designate-pakistan-terrorist-state/

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More details » BBC »  http://www.bbc.com/urdu/world/2016/09/160921_us_congress_bill_terorism_pakistan_rh

Karachi, Sindh was known to the ancient Greeks

The area of Karachi (ڪراچي) was known to the ancient Greeks by many names: ‘Krokola’ and ‘Morontobara’ port (probably the modern Manora Island near the Karachi harbour), from where Alexander the Great’s admiral Nearchus sailed for back home.The Arabs called it the port of Debal, from where Muhammad Bin Qasim led his conquering force into Sindh.According to legend, the city started as a Harbour by the Sea Transporters of Kutchh and Arab states and Fishing settlement .The city was under Kalhora rulers and later under Talpur rulers of Sindh. It was conquered by British east India Company in 1839. The town was later annexed to the British Indian Empire. When Pakistan got independence in 1947, Karachi was selected as its capital. The capital was shifted to Islamabad in 1959.

Courtesy: via FRIENDS OF SINDHU (INDUS) CIVILIZATION.

The forgotten utopia: The Indus people may have lived for 700 years without war, weapons or inequality

The Indus civilisation lived across South Asia from 2600-1900 BC
Artefacts, such as jewellery, have been found, but not a single weapon
There is little evidence of a government, royalty or any other leader
Some experts have said it is impossible for Indus to have lived in this way
But until the Indus scripture has been translated, it is difficult to know

By SHIVALI BEST FOR MAILONLINE

Many believe the idea of a utopian society is an impossible fantasy.

indus-people

But there may have been one mysterious, ancient group of people that was able to fulfil the dream of life without conflict or rulers.

Remains of the Indus civilisation, which flourished from 2600 to 1900 BC, show no clear signs of weapons, war or inequality.

This is according to Andrew Robinson. the author of ‘The Indus: Lost civilisations’, who has written an in-depth piece in the New Scientist.

‘All signs point to a prosperous and advanced society – one of history’s greatest,’ he writes.

The Indus Empire stretched over more than a million square miles across the plains of the Indus River from the Arabian Sea to the Ganges, over what is now Pakistan, northwest India and eastern Afghanistan.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3791308/The-forgotten-utopia-Indus-people-lived-700-years-without-war-weapons-inequality.html#ixzz4KQArUPmt
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The crisis of Mohajir identity

join hands
Help bring Sindhi & urdu speaking Sindhis together, the fate of both is conjoined whether they like it or not

By Harris Khalique

EXCERPT:

A large part of Mohajirs from western India who live in urban Sindh had nothing to do with Delhi or UP. They spoke Memoni, Kathiawari, Malabari, Kokni and Katchi to name a few. Even many from Indian Punjab, Haryana and Kashmir who are settled in Karachi and vote for the MQM are not strictly Urdu-speaking if the term means identifying one’s mother tongue. Besides, those who have come from Assam, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala are all bracketed among the Urdu-speaking.

One may argue that now these communities settled in urban Sindh speak Urdu as their first language or even as their mother tongue. But if we take this as a rule, almost all of middle-class Punjabis across Punjab and Islamabad, and increasingly many among middle class Sindhis, Seraikis and Hindko-speakers and particularly those coming from mixed parentage including Pakhtuns and Baloch, speak Urdu as their first language of communication. Hence, using the term Urdu-speaking for a particular political community may well be seen as a respectful term for them but does not do justice to the language which is shared by a larger number of people and serves as the lingua franca.

Therefore, those settled in Sindh whose forebears had come from India can at best claim to have a political identity. That too is based only on their shared economic interest and fundamental rights due to living in a largely but not entirely contiguous geographical area within the province of Sindh.

The claim to an ethno-linguistic identity is farfetched. Asking for the division of the province is unjustified and wrong. The crisis of Mohajir identity can only end when those living in Sindh begin to believe in their Sindhi identity. Language/languages is not the only identity marker.

If Gujaratis and Tharis, and the Dhatki, Balochi, Brahvi and Seraiki speaking population that are settled in rural Sindh can all become a part of the larger Sindhi identity, those speaking Urdu and other languages as their mother tongues and living in urban centres of Sindh can also assimilate, politically first and culturally over generations. However, the enlightened Sindhi middle class also has to play a proactive role in making this happen.

Read more » ThE NEWS
See more » https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/148363-The-crisis-of-Mohajir-identity

Easter Island – Indus Valley Scripts

Amazing similarities between two distinct cultures separated by thousands of miles!

indus script

Rongorongo is Oceania’s only indigenous script. It is found in one location only – In the centre of the Pacific Ocean, over a thousand miles from any continent. We now know that the first migrations to Easter Island were deliberate, because they involved taking the people, plants and animals needed to establish sustainable colonies(6). The script was first identified in 1864, and any suggestions that it originated after European contact are  rejected on the basis that at least two of the Rongorongo tablets are dated to before their arrival(1). So the big question remains… where did it come from?

Read more » Ancient Wisdom
See more » http://www.ancient-wisdom.com/easterislandindusvalley1.htm

Sur Saamoondi

Translation and Transcription by Emily Hauze

لاهيان جي نه چِتان، الا! اُن مَ وِسران
مَڙهيو مَنجهارن، جيءُ منهنجو جن سين
شاهه عبدالطيف ڀٽائي

In romanized Sindhi:

Laahiyaan jay na chitaan, alla! un ma wisraan,
Marrhiyo manjharan, jeeu muhinjo jin seen.
~ Secular Sindhi Soofi poet Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (1689 – 1752)
Sur Saamoondi

“O Heavens! His heart and mine from within are entwined;
Let me abide in his mind; if forgotten, I die.”

—-
Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai: from “Sur Samoondi”
in my translation.
—-

An explanation for those who do not know the context: “Sur Samundi” is the chapter in which Shah Latif writes from the perspective of young women whose husbands are sailors. They wait in anxiety, love, and hope, while their men are at sea, and they pray to be reunited. For Shah Latif, reunion with the husband equates to reunion with the Beloved (God), for which the Sufi soul is eternally longing.

Courtesy: Emily Hauze + Social media
https://www.facebook.com/emily.hauze/media_set?set=a.10206112358000488.1073741949.1608960197&type=3

True Freedom and the Neglected Chapter of Political History

NayyarBy Nayyar N Khan

The entire South Asia has been shadowed by the staggering apprehension of security concerns, cross-border conflicts and poor connectivity. The insubstantial situation of the one of the densely populated region in the world has made it one of the least integrated in the world besides having common bonds across the international borders. India and Pakistan being two nuclear rivals and key states of the region have always been on forefronts since their creation in 1947. Religion has always been a dominant factor in classifying the geo-political trends while evaluating the Indo-Pak relations. Although India claims to maintain her secular traditions but in practice religion was one of the fueling elements that impacted the Indian politics. While Pakistani politicians, on the other hand have consistently failed to identify the common “Political Nomenclature”. Instead of looking for the common bonds to strengthen the democratic character politicians have always preferred to take refuge under the imported umbrella of identification and sadly ignored the true sentiments of the struggling masses. With the new Indian identity after BJP’s government, dimensions of conflicts also shifted from political to more deeply implanted in religious ones.  The conflict over Jammu Kashmir has its historical roots in human rights and right of freedom and development. Over the years and decades ruling class of both countries have turned the Kashmir conflict into a religious one and have deliberately ignored the important variables to find the lasting solution of the conflict.

Human history is full of endless struggles and lessons. Among countless lessons in the evolutionary phases, there is one distinctive lesson that can be drawn by going through the pages of hitherto history and it could be summed up as “if the people are to co-exist peacefully and respectfully and advance their life, they must be free of any kind of oppression and enjoying equal standards in rights.” Going deep down the pages of history we also come to know that as long as the mistreatment and exploitation of one class by the other exists and the majority of human race living in a particular region is deprived of fundamental rights and prospects to develop in a free environment without fear; the slogans of democracy, peace and justice are absurd and muted and claptrap assortments. The people of Jammu Kashmir have been going through multi-folded layers of exploitation that has taken its tolls in almost every single family living across LOC in this beautiful Himalayan Country. Major Obstacles in shape of occupation, slavery, exploitation by the ruling elites and imposed socio-economic order have protracted impacts in blocking the road to progress and development. Digging down the layers of history to determine where and what went wrong in the past seven decades definitely would help in advancing towards ending the conflict in a rational way but it needs much more time and efforts to point out every single ring of the chain. Shortly, the ruling class of the region has failed badly time and again to end the conflict in Jammu Kashmir. If the dispute is still going on Kashmiri people should not be held responsible for that rather class based interests of both Indian and Pakistani ruling elite is the major factor that hindered all the efforts in resolving the dispute in sub-continent. Ruling elite of both countries have defaulted on their own promises and pledges with Kashmiri people and International Community.  While reading all those dusted pages of political history of South Asia, one common question arises in the minds of Kashmiri people that almost seventy years have passed since sub-continent was divided and we still are not free; and the life of the masses is still sadly crippled by the yokes of exploitation and the shackles of suppression. All the divided parts of Jammu Kashmir have become milk-cows for the local legislative gangs, feeding grounds as pleasant as possible for a horde of the local rogues and the parasites of Kashmir conflict.

Continue reading True Freedom and the Neglected Chapter of Political History

Rajiv Malhotra Discussing the new MOHENJO DARO movie

Rajiv Malhotra Discussing the new MOHENJO DARO movie, what is true and false about its depictions of history. What are the social-political implications. How to watch it for entertainment as well as education. Please watch my talk to develop a Vedic drishti for interpreting this movie.

Courtesy: Rajiv Malhotra >> Youtube

Corruption in Pakistan

 

Corruption in Pakistan is widespread,[1] particularly in the government and lower levels of police forces.[2] In 2014, Pakistan scored 126 out of 174 on theCorruption Perceptions Index published by the Transparency International,[3]improving slightly from its previous score of 127 out of 175 in 2013.[4] Pakistan saw a significant improvement in its statistics in 2013 when its ranking improved by 12 indices compared to its previous rankings[5] – 139 out of 174 in 2012,[6]134 out of 182 in 2011,[7][8] 143 out of 178 in 2010,[9] and 139 out of 180 in 2009.[10]

Corruption has plagued Pakistan from the very moment it came into existence.[11] It was the unrepentant display of plutocracy amongst its powerfulbureaucracy and the West Pakistani Punjabi Muslim landowners that partly led to the secession of East Pakistan into the nation-state of Bangladesh.[12] Later,nationalisation policies prepared under the government of prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto paved the way for the corrupt elites to politicise the nation’s economic planning resulting in a public outcry against corruption.[13] This led the military dictator Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq to draft policies regarding denationalisation of institutions which only ended up benefiting a few rich business magnates such as the future prime minister, Nawaz Sharif, who was also a protégé of the military dictator.[14]

Read more » Wikipedia
See more » https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corruption_in_Pakistan

Who were the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation? The Mystery of Mound 4

 

Archaeologists at Rakhigarhi in Haryana hope their excavations throw up an answer to this and more, unlocking the mysteries of the people of ancient India.

Mound 4 looks as unimpressive as it sounds, a small rise with plastic waste and garbage strewn along the three-minute walk to the top. Hundreds of pucca houses have been built on it, complete with cowsheds, the cattle contentedly chewing fodder, the men flaked out on cots in the verandahs, sleeping off the summer afternoon, women heard from inside houses but not seen. Appearances, though, are misleading. Under the sprawling settlement on Mound 4, say archaeologists, is the site of an at least 5,500 year-old human settlement, an important centre of the Harappan Civilisation in the Indus Valley, one that they claim could unlock the mysteries of the people of ancient India. Among the many questions it hopes to answer is an enduring one: who were the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation?

Read more » The Indian Express
See more » http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/art-and-culture/the-mystery-of-mound-4/

“If Someone Speaks Unfairly Of Pakistan, It Is Painful To Me…” – Says Emily An American

How does it feel when a foreigner, especially an American falls in love with Pakistan?

Surprisingly this is not a fairy tale but a true story of Emily Hauze who fell in love with Pakistan and the culture of Sindh. The story does not end here. She initiated on a personal level to improve the image of Pakistan. Isn’t it surprising?

Jovago Pakistan got the opportunity to interview Emily to know more about her views, experiences and thoughts about Pakistan. 

Our first question is who is Emily Hauze? Tell us a little detail about yourself.

I am an American blogger, photographer, and generally curious person. I grew up in a very small town in the southern state of Tennessee, but moved to Pennsylvania, where I did my bachelor’s and master’s degrees (in Music and German literature).

I am a lifelong student of all facets of arts and culture — not only photography but all forms of visual art, and theatre, dance, and of course literature and music.

How do you finance your trips?

In general, the only major expense for me on my trips is the plane ticket. That and also the cost of obtaining a Visa, for which I have to reapply each time I come. But once I arrive in Pakistan, I find that I am not allowed to pay for anything.

Since I always stay with friends, lodgings are not an issue, and food is always abundant and shared freely in Pakistani homes.

I am not much interested in shopping, so I don’t have to save up much for that purpose. Beyond this, many of the cultural and historic sites I visit with my friends and family are free or very inexpensive.

Continue reading “If Someone Speaks Unfairly Of Pakistan, It Is Painful To Me…” – Says Emily An American

For 35 years, Sindhi volunteers have helped worshippers at a Chennai mosque break their Ramzan fast

The followers of the Sufi saint Dada Ratanchand carry on the tradition of serving food at the Wallajah Mosque for all thirty days of the fast.

It’s dusk in Chennai. The warm evening light streams in from behind the two white minarets of the Wallajah mosque in Triplicane. In the spacious front yard, more than 50 men wearing white fez caps wait silently. A little before the evening prayers begin in the 220-year-old mosque, a yellow truck swings into the driveway. The men immediately spin into action, unloading metal containers of porridge, biscuits, bananas and vadas.

As they have done for the past 35 years, Sindhi volunteers from the Sufidar Trust – who follow the teachings of Dada Ratanchand, a Partition refugee who settled in Chennai – have gathered to serve iftaar, the meal that ends the daily fast during the month of Ramzan.

The trust aims to spread the teachings of the Sufi saint Shahenshah Baba Nebhraj Sahib of Rohri, Sindh. “We believe all Gods are one, only people have turned it into different sects,” said Govind Bharwani, who has been a volunteer with the Trust almost since its inception. “That is what our guruji told us.”

Read more » Scroll.in
See more » http://scroll.in/article/811273/for-35-years-sindhi-volunteers-have-helped-worshippers-at-a-chennai-mosque-break-their-ramzan-fast

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa belongs to Afghans: Achakzai

Pashtun leader Mahamood Khan Achakzai has said that he would not allow anyone to harass Afghan refugees in their “own land”. He directly said that Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province belongs to Afghans and they can live there without fear and irritation.

“If Afghans are harassed in other parts of Pakistan, they should come here to the Pakhtunkhwa province, where no one can ask them for refugee cards, because it also belongs to them,” Achakzai who leads the Pakhtunkhwa Millie Awami Party said.

Read more » The Pashtun Times
See more » http://thepashtuntimes.com/khyber-pakhtunkhwa-belongs-to-afghans-achakzai/

Sherman Amendment to Foreign Affairs bill for Sindhi Language Programming Passes Committee Markup

In a House Foreign Affairs Committee markup on July 21, 2011, Congressman Brad Sherman (D-CA) offered an amendment to the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012. The amendment required that, of the funds made available to Voice of America, $1.5 million be used only for Sindhi language programming.

Courtesy: YouTube

Afghanistan, Pakistan Move Heavy Weapons and Troops to Khyber Pass

One Afghan soldier and one Pakistani officer have been killed and 22 wounded in clashes at Torkham Border crossing.

By Franz-Stefan Gady

Both Afghanistan and Pakistan have stepped up their military presence in and around the border town of Torkham at the end of the Khyber Pass, after repeated clashes that so far have killed two and wounded 22 at the main crossing point between the two countries,Reuters reports.

Both sides have moved an unknown number of reinforcements including heavy weapons to Torkham. The town is located along the porous Durand Line, and the busiest border crossing point between Afghanistan and Pakistan connecting the Afghan province of Nangarhar with Pakistan’s Khyber Agency.

As The Diplomat reported, a fierce firefight erupted late Sunday between Afghan Border Police and Pakistan’s Frontier Corps purportedly after a Pakistani attempt to erect a gate on the border. The fighting stopped Monday morning. “This gate [is] considered essential to check&verify documentation of all border crossers. Will check move of terrorists,” General Asim Bajwa, chief spokesman for the Pakistani military, said on June 13 via Twitter.

Read more » The Diplomat
See more » http://thediplomat.com/2016/06/afghanistan-pakistan-move-heavy-weapons-and-troops-to-khyber-pass/

History of Sindh

In 1947 Sindh’s total population was more than 5.5 million out of which around 1.5 million were Hindus. Karachi’s population was around 525,000 in 1947 out of which more than 260,000 were Hindus. While Hyderabad had a population of over 170,000 out of which 90,000 were Hindus. Hindus made up more than 25% of Sindh while in the Urban areas they made up around 60% of the total population.
More than 750,000 Hindus left Sindh during the partition and now they number over 3 million in India. Karachi had more than 260,000 Hindus out of which almost all of them left for India.
Sindh was one of the most peaceful areas during the partition time, no riots or mass killings took place. Sindhi Muslims were also sad seeing their Sindhi brothers and sisters leaving Sindh forever.
There are still more than 4 million Hindus living in Sindh while 350,000 in Karachi.
Wish if these Hindus had not left for India, Karachi and Hyderabad would have been way ahead of Bombay, Dehli or Lahore.
When it comes to Demographics there are around 5 million Sindhis in India, out of which 1.5 to 2 million Sindhis are local Indian ones who have been living in Kutch and Bikaner since centuries. While in Pakistan there are around 33-35 million Sindhis.
There are also more than 2 million Sindhis living in Diapora, 60% Indian and 40% Pakistani. The growth rate of Pakistani Sindhis in the Diapora is very high.
*The figures given here are not 100% official but can have a fluctuation of 5-10%*
Written by Bilal Akber Mangi.

Courtesy: via Social media/Facebook (This piece of history is taken from Social media.)

Pakistan…confused and rudderless

By Ayaz Amir

Islamabad diary

The contrast could not be more glaring. Since we must compare ourselves with India, that being our eternal yardstick, we must take this in: the Indian prime minister addresses the US Congress and draws repeated applause. Pakistan, meanwhile, presents a fractured picture, democracy in place but the army in charge and calling the shots.

The army chief snaps his fingers and PML-N ministers dutifully line up at General Headquarters, in the same hallowed room next to the chief’s office where corps commanders’ meetings are held.

Read more » The News
See more » http://www.thenews.com.pk/print/126710-Pakistanconfused-and-rudderless

World Sufi Spirit Festival: Folk Sindhi Qawwali ‘Duma Dum Mast Qalandar’ By Langa Children

Famous Traditional Sindhi Folk Qawwali ‘Duma Dum Mast Qalandar’ By Langa Children

Every living soul at the venue was mesmerised by the soulful singing of Langa Children during the World Sufi Spirit Festival. Their voices echoed in the entire fort, filling it with a long-lasting divine feeling. The average age of children in this group is between 6 to 14 years. Langa and Manganiar are two Muslim ethnic groups living in the Thar Desert in the west of Rajasthan. Their musicians play traditional, semi-classical music of Western Rajasthan and are often part of important traditional ceremonies, rituals and other festivities.

Venue: World Sufi Spirit Festival at Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Video Details: Music Director :-Traditional, Lyrics :-Traditional
Theme & Mood :- Sufi, Label- Saregama India Limited

Courtesy: World Sufi Spirit Festival at Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

Indus Valley civilisation may pre-date Egypt’s pharoahs

Indus Valley Civilisation known for well-planned cities
Experts carbon dated pottery and animal bones at Bhirrana
They now believe the civilisation is around 8,000 years old
It is thought climate change may not have destroyed the civilisation

By SARAH GRIFFITHS FOR MAILONLINE

With its impressive pyramids and complex rules, Ancient Egypt may seem to many the epitome of an advanced early civilisation.

But new evidence suggests the Indus Valley Civilisation in India and Pakistan, famed for its well-planned cities and impressive crafts, predates Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Already considered one of the oldest civilisations in the world, experts now believe it is 8,000 years old – 2,500 years older than previously thought.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3621622/Indus-Valley-civilisation-pre-date-Egypt-s-pharoahs-Ancient-society-2-500-years-older-thought.html#ixzz4AX8Y3way
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