Tag Archives: Indus Valley Civilization

Who were the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation? The Mystery of Mound 4

 

Archaeologists at Rakhigarhi in Haryana hope their excavations throw up an answer to this and more, unlocking the mysteries of the people of ancient India.

Mound 4 looks as unimpressive as it sounds, a small rise with plastic waste and garbage strewn along the three-minute walk to the top. Hundreds of pucca houses have been built on it, complete with cowsheds, the cattle contentedly chewing fodder, the men flaked out on cots in the verandahs, sleeping off the summer afternoon, women heard from inside houses but not seen. Appearances, though, are misleading. Under the sprawling settlement on Mound 4, say archaeologists, is the site of an at least 5,500 year-old human settlement, an important centre of the Harappan Civilisation in the Indus Valley, one that they claim could unlock the mysteries of the people of ancient India. Among the many questions it hopes to answer is an enduring one: who were the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation?

Read more » The Indian Express
See more » http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/art-and-culture/the-mystery-of-mound-4/

Indus era at least 8,000 years old; ended because of weaker monsoon

Experts have found evidence of the Indus Valley Civilization being at least 8,000 years old and not 5,500 years old.

By Mystery Of India

Due to a recent revelation made by scientists from IIT-Kharagpur and Archaeological Survey of India, time has arrived to rewrite history textbooks. Experts have found evidence of the Indus Valley Civilization being at least 8,000 years old and not 5,500 years old, taking root well before the Egyptian (7000BC to 3000BC) and Mesopotamian (6500BC to 3100BC) civilizations. What’s more, the researchers have found evidence of a pre-Harappan civilization that existed for at least 1,000 years before this. As per a report published in Times of India, this may force a global rethink on the timelines of the so-called ‘cradles of civilization’. The scientists called climate change the reasson behind the ending of the civilization 3,000 years ago.

“We have recovered perhaps the oldest pottery from the civilization. We used a technique called ‘optically stimulated luminescence’ to date pottery shards of the Early Mature Harappan time to nearly 6,000 years ago and the cultural levels of pre-Harappan Hakra phase as far back as 8,000 years,” said Anindya Sarkar, head of the department of geology and geophysics at IIT-Kgp.

Read more » http://www.mysteryofindia.com/2016/05/indus-era-8000-years-old.html

The Indus Valley Civilization en-composed all of Pakistan.

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300-1300 BCE; mature period 2600-1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

Read more » Crystalinks
See more » http://www.crystalinks.com/induscivilization.html

Punjab: Did you hear what the Chinese president said?

BY MUSHTAQ SOOFI

Would the prime minister, the cabinet ministers, the members of the National Assembly, the senators and other power wielders pause for a moment and ponder over what the president of the People’s Republic of China said in the beginning of his address to the joint session of Parliament held this week in Islamabad.

He described Pakistan as a country ‘young and ancient’. In the euphoria created by a huge pile of MOUs (which definitely would have economic bearings on our future) no one would care to understand the implied suggestion this apparently simple statement carried. But anyone who knows how Chinese are subtle in the matters of statecraft, politics and diplomacy will not miss how significant is the unsaid in what he said.

We all know we are a young country. The president reminded us that though a young country we have been a product of a brilliant ancient society spanned over thousands of years. What prompted him to iterate that is obvious? Our attitude towards the past and what it offers! Our past and what it offers constitutes ‘ancient’.

It’s precisely this very ‘historical mess’ that we abhor and are scared of, thus exposing an unbridgeable gulf between our being ‘young’ and ‘ancient’. So far we have tried though not successfully to build everything around the fact of our being young in search of ideology driven utopia that has landed us in a grey zone of historical dis-orientation.

With the emergence of Pakistan in 1947 our ruling elite strengthened the faith-based narrative, exclusive and monolithic, which was and is still being touted as a raison deter of the new state. Such an unnatural and a historical thinking caused an almost complete rupture with our long past especially the shared one spread over at least five thousand years.

In our world of make-belief we thought as if we came into being out of thin air of abstraction forgetting that we are what we have been and what we have been belongs to the irretrievable, the past. One can interpret and re-interpret the past but cannot change it.

It does not in way mean that humans are mere prisoners of history. On the one hand they are product of history and on the other they are capable of making history. However it is to be remembered that though ‘men make their own history they do not make it as they please. They do not make it under the circumstances chosen by themselves but under the circumstances existing already, given and transmitted from the past’. Our elders made history by creating a new state but they did this under the circumstances created by history itself which made the peaceful co-existence of Hindu and Muslim communities a distant dream cherished by many.

The new state while endeavouring to realize a different and secure future for its citizens suffered from a fatal fallacy. That is that the past can be declared an alien territory having no presence in the collective conscious and subconscious of people and hence one can have absolutely clean break with it.

The past, to the dismay of ideologues, is not something completely solid that can be demolished and buried under the debris of intellectual claptrap. What is most tangible about the past is its ever present intangibility as submerged experience at subterranean level that refuses to fade out from the psychic space.

Pakistani state and the elite with a deep sense of insecurity have been trying to build an exclusive national identity based on the denial of the past that we shared and still share with India.

The irony is that what is conceived as Indian and debunked is the cultural and intellectual manifestation of our ancient culture. What is the Indian civilization san Indus valley?

Can you imagine Indian civilization without Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, Rig-Veda (composed by Rishis at the banks of river Ravi), Gandhara and Taxila? Can you write the history the political science ignoring the Chanakya Kautilya’s Arthshastra, the first book on statecraft and art of politics?

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The Folktales of Sindh – An introduction – Words Without Borders

The Folklore and Literature Project, the forty-two-volume Sindhi folklore collection compiled by the scholar, philologist, and folklorist Nabi Bakhsh Khan Baloch (1917–2011) and published by the Sindhi Adabi Board, is one of the great treasures of world heritage. This literature spans the historic land of Sindh, home to the Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1300 BCE), situated in present-day Pakistan. It is likely that in the folktales preserved in the Sindhi language, we can find the structures and traces of the earliest stories from the Indus Valley Civilization

Baloch divided this literature into several broad categories: “Fables and fairy-tales; pseudo-historical romances; tales of historical nature; folk-poetry; folk songs; marriage songs; poems pertaining to wars and other events; riddles; proverbs; wit and humor; and folk customs.” Of this collection, seven volumes were dedicated to folktales: The Tales of Kings and Queens, Princes and Princesses (vol. 21), Tales of Kings, Viziers, and Merchants (vol. 22), Tales of Fairies, Giants, Magicians, and Witches (vol. 23), Tales of Kings, Money-lenders, Wise-Men, Thugs, and the Common People (vol. 24), Children’s Tales (vol. 25), Fables of Animals and Birds (vol. 26), and Even More Folktales (vol. 27).

Collected from both the oral tradition of the villagers and written records, the stories were gathered and compiled over five years from 1957 to 1961. A network of field workers stationed in each district transcribed the folktales from the oral accounts of villagers in different parts of Sindh. The field workers were instructed to transcribe the tales exactly as they heard them. At the compilation stage, different versions of the same tale were compared, the variants noted, and a final version prepared for publication. Where only a single version for a folktale was found, it was retained with minimum verbal modification necessary to make it readable.

Continue reading The Folktales of Sindh – An introduction – Words Without Borders

Proud on Sindhi Topi and Ajrak

LONDON, DECEMBER 2, 2009. World Sindhi Congress expressed its full support and intended participation in “Sindhi Topi and Ajrak Day” (Sindhi Cap and Scarf Wearing Day) being celebrated all over the world on December 6th, 2009. International cultural get-togethers are already planned in London, Manchester, Bristol and Scotland as well as in New York.

Sindh, currently within the geo-political boundaries of Pakistan and homeland to 35 million Sindhi people, has an aboundingly rich culture, heritage and language dating back thousands of years. Since its inclusion in Pakistan, six decades ago, the indigenous people of Sindh have suffered systematic and institutionalized marginalization of their language and culture.

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Hindu Methodology

The roots of Hindu methodology is deeply imbedded in the Indus valley civilization. Hindu methodolgy recognizes one supreme God, one divine entity who is both at one with the universe and transcends it at the same time. In Hindu methodology, it is believed that the one and only divine entity to exist as three separate parts: 1. Brahma, the Creator, who perpetually creates new realities, 2. Vishnu, or Krishna, the Preserver and the protector, 3. Shiva, the Destroyer. In Hindu belief everything comes from nothing and goes to nothing, in cycle after cycle. Therefore, Brahma creates the universe, Vishnu takes over as its caretaker and then Shiva destroys it so that Brahma can begin the cycle again.

Hinduism is such an ancient religion; there are many divisions and variations in tradition and custom. Hindu sects are enormously tolerant of each other, and to other religions, believing as there are many paths to the one true omnipotent God.

The crow had a key role in the sea trade between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, says Dr Manzur Ejaz

Painting of Indus Civilization by Artist Manzoor Solangi

Painting of Indus Civilization by Artist Manzoor Solangi

Please note- Dr Manzur Ejaz taught at the Punjab University, Lahore, for many years and now lives in Virginia
Courtesy and Thanks: Friday Times, February 20-26,2009 -Vol.XX1,No.1 & Wichaar.com
From time immemorial, legend has it that love sick girls would wait for the crow to bring the good news of a lover’s arrival. The crow’s chatter on the roof was a sure sign that the lover was on his way. In folk songs like “Maey ni kag banairay uttay bolia” (O mother, the crow has spoken), and in many other such songs, idioms and parables, the crow plays a central role as the keeper of secrets.

Continue reading The crow had a key role in the sea trade between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, says Dr Manzur Ejaz