2008 Education Policy- Rural-Urban Gap

By Khalid Hashmani, McLean, Virginia

Last week, the federal Education Ministry issued a policy draft containing several policy statements about the future Education Policy of Pakistan. I urge the Peoples’ Party of Pakistan (PPP) to reject this draft and appoint a commission composed of representatives from all provinces, ensuring that true representation from rural Sindh, Balochistan, and FATA. These three regions have poorest of poor educational facilities and opportunities and the people there are substantially lagging behind the rest of Pakistan.

The Ministry of Education of Government of Pakistan issued a draft of the National Education Policy on April 14, 2008. The draft available at http://www.moe. gov.pk/nepr/ new.pdf. Although the draft policy is comprehensive in many respects and clearly recognizes the inequities between rural and urban areas, it fails to mention that the conditions of educational facilities and opportunities in RURAL SINDH are as bad as in rural Balochistan and FATA. A synopsis of the key points from the draft is given at the end of this letter. My arguments for asking PPP to reject the draft policy are as follows:

1. The policy unfairly and irrationally pushes for centralization of Pakistan’s educational system. The centralization is one of the main reasons that has kept Pakistan from progressing. The over centralization has resulted in various forms of discrimination that the draft policy has itself recognized. However, the draft policy wrongfully says that modern states have one national education system. In fact, in most modern and progressing countries (including USA, India, Canada, etc.), the federal governments simply create some high-level guidelines, national standards and assessments systems but otherwise the matter of education is considered totally a provincial subject. This is the reason that constitution of Pakistan emphasizes gives the responsibility of education to the provinces. Unfortunately, the over-zealous proponents of the centralization have succeeded in continuing the “education” to be largely a federally controlled subject. But, we all know that the days of concurrent list are likely to end soon. The education policy makers must realize this reality and make changes to the policy to comply with the new era of decentralization.

2. The draft policy claims that new National Educational Policy supports the reflection of the local cultural contexts through curricula, etc. It forgets that only educational system that is run by provinces can truly reflect the real cultural context of their provinces.

3. The draft policy lumps all regional dialects and languages into one category. The education policy must recognize that the Sindhi language is the historical language of Sindh. Unlike other provinces, Sindhi has been used as the main medium of instruction for more than a century. The education policies must be amended to ensure that this historical role of the Sindhi language is preserved for generations to come.

4. The federation of Pakistan is composed of four (4) federating units with their distinct history and heritage. The draft policy does not recognize this important fact. Relevant policy changes must be made so that students are not only taught the modern history of Pakistan but they are also taught about their province’s distinct history and heritage.

5. The report distinctly refers to the “Federal” government but lumps provincial governments and other local governments under one phrase “Provincial/Area Governments” . The education policy makers must realize that during these times when the need for “provincial autonomy” has become the cry of almost all Pakistanis and because “education” is a provincial subject, such references in policy recommendations be changed to recognize the prominent role of provincial governments in meeting the educational objectives of Pakistan. The policy draft should recommend that jurisdiction between the local areas located in a province is to set by the provincial governments and the federal government must not interfere in such matters.

6. A policy action must include a provision that starting next year, additional 0.5% of GDP will be spent on improving education facilities in rural Sindh, rural Balochistan, and FATA areas until the the educational facilities and opportunities in those areas are brought to be apar with rest of Pakistan.

7. A policy recommendation must be made to allow provincial governments to negotiate foreign assistance for improving education facilities for their provinces.

8. The federal role in education should be limited to creating high-level guidelines, setting of national quality standards, and establishing assessment tests. The federal government must not interfere more than that in the education matters and let the provincial government meet their responsibility in education sector as the founding fathers had envisioned. There is no need for Inter-Provincial Education Ministers’ (IPEM) Conference to be used as a tool to deny further provincial autonomy.

I hope some of you will also take time to read this dreadful policy draft, whose aim seems to be to further the yoke of centralization on federating units.

I look forward to hearing soon that PPP will create a new education commission to create guidelines that will empower provinces to improve education in their provinces and allocate substantial funding towards bringing educational equity between urban and rural areas of their province.

——— ——

SYNPOSIS FROM THE DRAFT POLICY REPORT

—– ——— —

MAJOR CONCERNS ON EDUCATION EXPRESSED IN DRAFT POLICY

——— ———

The draft policy rightfully points out the following major concerns:

1. The current Pakistani policy framework has not served as a satisfactory guide and has not generated desired results in the context of access rates, quality and equity in educational opportunities.

2. The current policy will fail as the new challenges triggered by globalization and Pakistan’s desire to become a “knowledge society” are faced.

3. Although Gross Enrollment Ratio, at the primary level has improved, the achieved 66% rate is below the target rate of 79% for 2005-06. One-third of primary school age and three-quarters of the secondary school age children remain out of school. THE DRAFT SAYS, “CLEARLY, PAKISTAN IS SOME DISTANCE AWAY FROM ACHIEVING UNIVERSAL SCHOOLING, EVEN AT THE PRIMARY LEVEL”.

4. Pakistan performance on enrollments lacks behind both in the context of education and literacy rates. PAKISTAN’S LITERACY RATES (49.9%) IS LOWER THAN FOR COUNTRIES LIKE INDIA (61%), IRAN (82.4%), and SRI LANKA (90.7%).

5. The low access primarily results from lack of confidence in the public sector schools due to POLITICAL INTERFERFERENCE AND CORRUPTION THAT HAS PREMEATED THE ENTIRE SECTOR. RECRUITMENTS, TRANSFERS and POSTINGS ARE POLITICALLY DRIVEN CAUSING THE ISSUES OF ABSENTEE TEACHERS, GHOST SCHOOLS AND CHEATING IN EXAMINATIONS.

6. There is a large difference in ACCESS ACROSS GENDER, ETHNIC MINORITIES, PROVINCES, REGIONS, and RURAL-URBAN DIVIDE.

7. It is common knowledge and proven by many studies that DISCRIMINATION EXISTS IN EDUCATION SYSTEM IN VARIOUS FORMS. This inequity is the result of poor implementation and social customs.

8. The girls continue to face SIGNIFICANT DISADVANTAGES IN ACCESS AS THEY REACH ADULTHOOD. THE FEMALES ARE PARTICULARLY UNDER REPRESENTED IN RURAL AREAS.

9. The RURAL DISADVANTAGE AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL IS RATHER LARGE (48% URBAN vs. 22% RURAL). THE PRECENTAGE GAP BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS HAS WIDENED 20 POINTS IN 2001-02 to 2005-06. The SURVIVAL RATE TO GRADE 5 IS 67% in RURAL AREAS VS. 94% IN URBAN AREAS. THE PUPIL TEACHER RATIO IS 12 PUPILS PER TEACHER IN URBAN AREAS VS. 18 PUPILS PER TEACHER IN RURAL AREAS. WHILE 90% OF URBAN SCHOOLS HAS WATER SOURCES, ONLY 63% RURAL SCHOOLS DO SO. WHERE AS, URBAN SCHOOLS HAVE 88% SANITATION FACILITIES VS. 56% SCHOOLS HAVE SIMILAR FACILITIES IN OF RURAL AREAS.

10. The study says that PUNJAB and SINDH are leading are at the top of league, however, as usual poor BALOCHISTAN IS LAGGING FAR BEHIND with the following percentages:

Primary School Net Enrolment Ratio (NER)

— Punjab 68%

— Sindh 67%

— NWFP 66%

— Balochistan 40%

Secondary School Net Enrolment Ratio (NER) – Punjab (26%) vs. 11% for Balochistan and FATA.

The Literacy rate for adults is 55% in Sindh vs. 37% in Balochistan.

11. An international comparison confirms the relative POOR QUALITY of Pakistan’s education. The National Education Assessment System (NEAS) 2005 scores of Pakistani students are well below many other countries.

12. Only about 47% of teaching staff had the required teaching qualifications.

DRAFT POLICY ON FUNDING SOURCES FOR EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

——— ——— —

1. In 2005-6, the governments funding amounted to about 2.5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on education. A further 0.5% is estimated to be the contribution of the private sector for 3% of GDP. It is slight improvement from 2000-01 when it was 2.2%.

2. Pakistan spends relatively LESS on education (2.3%) than countries like Iran (4.7%), Malaysia (6.2%), India (3.8%), and Bangladesh (2.5%).

MAJOR DRAFT POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

——— ——— ——— –

The draft policy recommendations in numerous areas including:

1. Provinces and local areas to affirm the goal of achieving universal and free primary education by 2015 and up to class 10 by 2025.

2. The Government shall commit to allocating 7% of GDP to education by 2015.

3. The federal and Provincial/Area Governments shall develop consensus on needs and priorities for foreign assistance in education.

4. The federal role shall be facilitator and coordinator. The federal government will be responsible for National Education policy. The Inter-Provincial Education Ministers’ (IPEM) Conference will have the jurisdiction over reviewing progress and implementation.

April 23, 2008

Courtesy: Sindhi e-lists/ e-groups,

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Oil discovery in Sindh

While due to international oil prices, oil-producing countries are flourishing but Sindh has not benefit …

News : With a successful discovery of a new exploratory well in District Hyderabad, Sindh, the average daily production of Oil and Gas Development Company (OGDC) including the share from the joint ventures has touched 45,235 barrels of crude oil per day.The Company has succeeded to discover an exploratory well near Lashari lease, Molan area in District Hyderabad. Initially the production of the well will be 1,150 barrel per day, the specification of this oil is 45 degree API,.. OGDC is also producing 963 million cubic feet of natural gas and 382 metric tons of LPG per day… Aaj News

State-owned Oil and Gas Development Co Ltd (OGDCL), the country’s biggest listed firm, announced on Friday a small oil discovery in southern Sindh province, raising its oil output by 1,150 barrels per day (bpd)… Last week, Pakistan finalised plans to issue an exchangeable bond with an option for OGDCL shares, to be jointly managed by ABN AMRO, Barclays and JP Morgan…

April 21, 2008

Father and Son

There once was a little boy who had a bad temper. His Father gave him a bag of nails and told him that every time he lost his temper, he must hammer a nail into the back of the fence.

The first day the boy had driven 37 nails into the fence. Over the next few weeks, as he learned to control his anger, the number of nails hammered daily gradually dwindled down.

He discovered it was easier to hold his temper than to drive those nails into the fence.

Finally the day came when the boy didn’t lose his temper at all. He told his father about it and the father suggested that the boy now pull out one nail for each day that he was able to hold his temper.

…………………..The days passed and the young boy was finally able to tell his father that all the nails are gone. The father took his son by the hand and led him to the fence He said, “You have done well, my son, but look at the holes in the fence. The fence will never be the same.

When you say things in anger, they leave a scar just like this one. You can put a knife in a man and draw it out.

It won’t matter how many times you say “I’m sorry”, the wound is still there. A verbal wound is as bad as a physical one.

Please forgive me if I have ever left a hole.

Criticism of Nuclear Agreement False and Frivolous

by: Ram Jethmalani

For quite sometime critics of the Nuclear Agreement have been frightening the Government that the people of India intensely resent it. This is just not true.

Truth can only be established if the House is dissolved and the deal becomes the only issue at the next election. My own understanding is that this canard emanates from those who are hoping to corner the votes of those who hate America but for reasons totally unconnected with the deal. The Times of India Poll published only this morning fortifies my opinion. 93% welcome the deal. Conceding that the Poll is not conclusive, the criticism by the Left, the BJP and some other parties must be exposed as false, frivolous and vexatious.

The main criticism is based upon the Act of the US Congress called the “Henry J. Hyde United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2006”. It is said that this legislation is binding on the US President and it negatives the provisions of the Nuclear Agreement. The US President has explained that most of its clauses are advisory and whatever binding effect they have, is on the U. S. Administration and not India. The latter is only bound by its obligations under the Agreement. The Constitutional relationship between domestic legislation and a treaty entered into by the President is wholly misrepresented out of ignorance or intentional suppression of truth. The position is thus described by well known text book in its latest edition. It needs to be reproduced.

Treatise on Constitutional Law –

Substance and Procedure – Third Edition –

Ronald D. Rotunda John E. Nowak

6.7 Conflicts Between Treaties and Acts of Congress

While treaties as well as federal statutes are the supreme law of the land, the Constitution provides no solution for the dilemma arising when provisions of a self-executing treaty conflict with acts of Congress. In Whitney v. Robertson the Supreme Court addressed the issue of modifying a treaty by subsequent acts of Congress. The case involved a dispute arising between the United States and the Dominican Republic over the terms of a sugar trade treaty to which the two nations were parties.

The Court stated that constitutionally treaties and legislative acts are equal, both being the supreme law of the land. When the treaty and statute relate to the same subject, the courts will always endeavor to construe them so as to give effect to both, if that can be done without violating the language of either, but if the two are inconsistent, the one last in date will control the other…

Acts of Congress passed after the date of the treaty, the Court held, control over the treaty terms. Similarly, a self-executing treaty is valid as domestic law and takes precedence over a federal law enacted earlier. The last expression of the will of the sovereign controls.

This puts an end to most of the arguments conjured up by the not too honest critics. The Act doubtless reiterates the Non-Proliferation policy of the Government of the United States of America. The Nuclear Weapons Power have persuaded all the countries of the world except four to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The Act is a bold attempt to make an exception for India. The reasons for making this singular and extraordinary exception are clearly spelt out by the Act. These are –

1. India has demonstrated responsible behaviour with respect to the Non-Proliferation of technology related to nuclear weapons and the means to make them;

2. India has a functioning and uninterrupted democratic system of government;

3. Agreement for civilian cooperation will strengthen the Non-Proliferation mechanism in place and restrain the making and spread of nuclear weapons.

4. That the cooperation to be extended to India will isolate and weaken the States that sponsor terrorism and terrorist groups which are on the look out for nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction.

5. Strong bilateral relations with India are in the national interest of the United States.

6. The two Nations share common democratic values and the potential for increasing and sustaining economic engagement.

7. Commerce in civil nuclear energy with India has the potential to benefit the people of all countries.

8. The cooperation to be extended to India represents a significant change of American policy relating to business with States which have rejected the NPT.

9. Indian democracy should feel flattered by this magnificent statement of reasons for exceptional treatment of India. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has accused the termination of long period during which we were treated as international outcasts with whom no nation will trade in nuclear fuel and technology sorely needed for its economic growth and industrial survival.

It is true that India has agreed to dissuade and prevent Iran from acquiring weapons of mass destruction including nuclear weapons capability and the capability to enrich uranium or reprocess nuclear fuel. It is certainly not in the interest of India and the world at large that a government which openly declares as its objective the destruction of a Member of the United Nation which has been granted full recognition by India should acquire the power to carry out its diabolical designs. Search for vote banks should not blind our politicians to the stark reality that half of the worlds organized terrorism, represented by Hizbollah is created and financed by ruling clerics of Iran. Iran has an ancient civilization and India is a friend of the people of Iran but the current government is an international horror.

Besides Iran is a signatory to the NPT and without a serious breach of International Law it cannot renege on its obligations. This part of the bargain is our constitutional duty under Article 51 of our basic law. This is not subservience to the U.S.A.

Dr. P. K. Ayanger, the former Chairman of Atomic Energy Commission seizes on Article 2 of the Nuclear Agreement which reads as under:-

Article 2 : “The parties shall cooperate in the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in accordance with the provisions of this agreement.

Each party shall implement this agreement in accordance with the respective applicable treaties, national laws regulations and license requirements, concerning the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.”

He concludes, and in this he is joined by my dear friend Arun Shourie, that we have bound ourselves by the Hyde Act, this is manifestly absurd. The Article only provides that each party shall implement the Agreement in accordance with the respective applicable treaties national laws etc. etc. As explained above the treaty overrides the national law. Moreover the Hyde Act is not the national law of India. Even if the Hyde Act were to bind India, the Article speaks not of the entire Act but only its provisions concerning the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Incidentally Dr. Kakodkar, the current Chairman of the A.E.C. and Dr. Chidambaram, the Principal Scientific Advisor to the Government have made no such criticism and raised no such absurd inference from Article 2. India has no intention to violate any provision concerning use of nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes. It is time we clearly understand what we intend to achieve by this Agreement. We are admittedly starved of nuclear fuel and new technology for production of the fifty thousand megawatt of electricity which are needed to light our homes and offices and run our industries and public services.

We will be able to trade and, by ordinary commercial activity, acquire what we need from the U.S. as well as the forty five countries that constitute the Group of suppliers. This is being done on the assumption that India is not going to detonate a nuclear bomb in the foreseeable future. But India has not given up this right in perpetuity. If and when the changed International Scenario compels this action we can exercise our sovereignty. The other party in exercise of its own sovereignty may well decide to terminate the exceptional business relationship forged by the Agreement. At that moment we will be in the same situation in which we are today or perhaps a much better situation because we would have sufficient reserves to see us through the remaining life of our reactors or we might have already solved our energy deficit problem.

I have no doubt that a situation in which we are compelled to explode one or more nuclear devices is not likely to arise at all. We expect no nuclear attack from Pakistan nor indeed from China.

It is well to draw the attention of the Left to the Joint Declaration issued by the Governments of India and China during the visit in November 2006 of President Hu Jintao of China. It is a long document and, therefore, reference may only be made to two extremely important paragraphs No. 27 and 39:-

“27. Considering that for both India and China, expansion of civilian nuclear energy programme is an essential and important component of their national energy plans to ensure energy security, the two sides agree to promote cooperation in the field of nuclear energy, consistent with their respective international commitments. As two countries with advanced scientific capabilities, they stress the importance of further deepening cooperation bilaterally as well as through multilateral projects such as ITER and enhance exchanges in the related academic fields……

39. Energy security constitutes a vital and strategic issue for producing and consuming countries alike. It is consistent with the common interest of the two sides to establish an international energy order, which is fair, equitable, secure and stable, and to the benefit of the entire international community. Both sides shall also make joint efforts, bilaterally as well as in multilateral fora to diversify the global energy mix and to increase the share in it of renewable energy sources. Global energy systems should take into account and meet the energy needs of both countries, as part and parcel of a stable, predictable, secure and clear energy future. In this context, international civilian nuclear cooperation should be advanced through innovative and forward-looking approaches, while safeguarding the effectiveness of international non-proliferation principles.”

This declaration evoked no criticism from the Left or any body else and yet the declaration records that India is under an obligation not to breach or dilute the effectiveness of the International Non-Proliferation infrastructure that the nuclear powers including China have created for the rest of the world.

The Chinese secured from us a written promise not to manufacture or to explode a nuclear bomb. If this involves surrender of sovereignty we were deprived of it by the Chinese in November 2006. It is immoral to attribute it to the USA in July 2007.

We can rest assured that if India is faced with the danger of nuclear aggression any bomb that we explode will be a legitimate act of defence which doubtless is a peaceful purpose by reason of the 51st Article of U N Charter.

Scientist P.K. Ayanger then treats us to another absurd ipse dixit. He declares that the Agreement is a total gain for the Non-Proliferation lobby and India gets nothing except a big Zero. Then like a megalomaniac he claims that the Indian Scientists have much better technology than the Americans. We can help them rather than that they help us. This to me sounds like the thirteenth stroke of a clock which not only discredits itself but tells us that the mechanism of the clock has gone hay wire.

The greatest gain is coming together of the two great democracies of the world. We are now partners not merely in a war against terrorism because two years ago we decided on expansion of the frontiers of democracy and the rule of law. However, because of the terrible mistakes on both sides India and United States which should have been friends and allies had drifted apart. Both countries have significantly changed their foreign policy by harmonizing it with the values of their domestic Constitutions. As partners we have a right to offer sage advice to each other. We both might accept the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, sign and carry forward the Kyoto protocols, give up the Security Council veto cut back on military spending and substantially increase social spending. Jointly we might fulfill the dream of Gandhiji that India will be the conscience of humanity relying on its arsenal of spiritual force rather than weapons of mass destruction.

Courtesy: Sindhishaan magzine, 30th August 2007

Praiseworthy decision: Hindu Gymkhana to be restored to Hindhu community

Hindu Gymkhana to be handed over to Hindu community: a good decision by Sindh government

Sindh Culture and Tourism Minister Sassui Palijo has said that the Hindu Gymkhana will be handed over to the Hindu community after getting it vacated from the National Academy of Performing Arts, which will be shifted to some other place.

http://thenews. jang.com. pk/daily_ detail.asp? id=107408

http://dawn. com/2008/04/18/local12. htm

It is a good decision and one hopes that it would really happen and would not remain just a public relation statement. Sindh government needs to take immediate and comprehensive measures to preserve the national heritage of Sindh and put an end to occupation of historic buildings.

It may be recalled that the previous government had handed over the historic building to Zia Mohiuddin ignoring the protests by the Hindu community and others.

Here is a letter by this scribe published in daily Dawn on 6 September, 2004 on the subject:

http://www.dawn. com/2004/09/06/letted. htm#2

Hindu Gymkhana

A report in a Sindhi daily (Aug 30) says some influential people are trying to take over the historical Hindu Gymkhana building in Karachi. According to the report, some people had acquired two rooms in the building some time back for establishing a dance and music centre.

Now they are trying to occupy the whole building and the provincial culture department is said to have sent a summary in this regard to the chief minister for approval.

According to the report, the city landmark spread over 8,400 sq meters was built in 1927. A noted Shikarpur architect Agha Ahmed Hussain had prepared the design and Seth Ram Gopaldas Mehta was the man behind the project.

After independence, the building housed the offices of the Federal Public Service Commission. It was vacated when the capital was moved to Islamabad in the 1960s.

The Sindh culture Department took the building under its control in 1993 and proclaimed it a heritage site. The department planned to establish a College of Art and Design at the site following the example of the Lahore Arts College . A sum of Rs4.05 million was sanctioned. No one knows the fate of the proposal.

It is a matter of great concern that historical and archaeological sites are being ignored. Many a building has deteriorated, been occupied by people, demolished or desecrated one way or the other.

The government had some time back announced plans to vacate the Pucca Qila, Hyderabad , and restore the great archeological site as a befitting national monument with a museum inside. Nobody knows the fate of that announcement either.

One appeals to the governor, the CM, the chief secretary and other concerned people to show some respect to historical buildings and national heritage sites and take measures to protect and preserve them.

Source – Courtesy: Aziz Narejo, Sindhi-elists/ e-grousps, April 18, 2008

A new Sindhi book QANOON SABHNEE LAE” (Law for All)

Book on Human, Women, Prisoner, Child & Minority Rights

A new Sindhi / Urdu book of eminent writer and lawyer Ayaz Latif Palijo is published by South Asia Partnership (SAP) Pakistan. The book “QANOON SABHNEE LAE” (Law for All) covers the laws related to Human Rights, Civil Liberties and Constitutional Rights.

The book includes the prefaces and forewords by scholars and writes like Rasool Bux Palijo, Muhammad Yousif Leghari Advocate, Hidayatullah Abbasi Advocate, Provincial Minister Sassui Palijo, Zulfiqar Shah and Dean Faulty of Law Sindh University Ahmed Ali Shaikh Advocate. In their words it is the first detailed book on laws and Human Rights in Sindhi language. They have said that this book would be a powerful democratic weapon in the hands of oppressed masses of Sindh. They have further suggested that other organizations and individuals should follow the path of SAP and reprint and distribute thousands of copies of this book in the remote rural areas of Sindh, Balochistan and Seraiki. They have emphasized upon the need of legal awareness campaign in Sindh which should include initiatives like legal clinics, lectures in Jail, lobbying for legislation, display of banners, writing of thousands of letters to concerned officers, personal meetings with women, peasants and children, awareness meetings among factory workers, communities and engagements and interaction with activists, parliamentarians, journalists and councilors.

The book is comprised of 20 Sindhi and 11 Urdu well-researched articles / write-ups on Fundamental Rights, Land Grabbing, Environmental Law, Women Rights and Pakistani Laws, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Muslim Family Laws, Child Abuses and Law, Guardianship & Ward Laws, Declaration Against the

Discrimination to Women, Juvenile Justice System Ordinance, Women Protection Bill, Peasant Rights and WTO, Child Marriage Restraint Laws, Probation, Procedure of Criminal Proceedings, Legal Importance of Nikahnama, Rights of Consumers, Compensation of Fatal Road Accidents, Honor Killings, Prison Rules, Minority Right, Laws for Aggrieved Govt. Servants, Laws for Protection of Animals, Laws for Dower & Dowry, Defamation Laws, Bonded Labor, Laws Against Public Nuisance, Wages for Factory Workers, Compulsory Free Education for the Children of Labor and the Procedure for Protection of Fundamental Rights.

The price of this 200 pages book is Rs. 120/- but it would be given free of cost to the afectees of Human Rights violations and to children, women and minority activists and prisoners. Qanoon Sabhnee Lai (Law for All) also incorporates a detailed chart of all the important sections of the Constitution of Pakistan, Civil Procedure Code, Pakistan Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Specific Relief Act and Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Nayyab Hain Hum (Rare We Are)

By Zulfiqar Halepoto

I feel honored to share with you all that a new book in Urdu language, compiled and edited by me on Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Shaheed is published. Title of the book is Nayyab Hain Hum (Rare We Are)

It is a great privilege too share with you all that Syed Murad Ali Shah provincial Minister for Revenue and Land Utilization, Government of Sindh member of Sayed Abdullah Shah Foundation has published this book.

This book is comprised of more than 100 selected articles written in Urdu language by the leading writers, intellectuals, political analyst, columnists, poets, her spouse, party leaders and workers, which are published in various leading Urdu dailies of Pakistan. Book is published by Sindh’s leading publication unit Sindhika Academy This 400 pages book has five sections: – Section 01: Introduction by Syed Murad Al Shah. – A detailed Preface on MBB Shaheed written by me as compiler and editor

Section 02: Selected Poems on MBB Shaheed by Hasan Mujtaba, Aitzaz Ahsan, Kishwar Naheed, Mehmood Sham etc

Section 03: Columns, write-ups, profiles, obituaries, comments, personal notes from dairies, memories and personal profile

Section 04 :Selected editorials of leading Urdu daily newspapers and magazines

Section 05: Selected colored photographs of MBB Shaheed

Book will soon be launched in Karachi

Courtesy: Sindhi lists/ e-groups, April 17, 2008

Jamshoro – The spirit of Sindh

By: Niilofur Farrukh

FOR someone who was born and brought up in Karachi, I must confess the cultural distance between the metropolis and the hinterland exists not just in miles. The inhabitants of the city, especially as young and brash as Karachi, have built a hybrid identity from the experience of constant change, chaos and cultural interface.

Meanwhile, the people of the interior of Sindh, steeped in the folklore and poetry of its Sufis, zealously guard the purity of their language and interpret life through the prism of conventions shaped by ancient history.

What Pakistan, a county that brought together heterogeneous people from all over South Asia, has needed since its inception is an education policy to unify cultures through knowledge and respect for pluralism. While this dream of the founding fathers is forgotten in the midst of political volatility and confrontation, opportunities for reconciliation and an understanding of Pakistan’s diverse traditions are lost.

As someone who was born in the decade that followed Partition, I grew up without the language skills to understand Bhitai and Bulleh Shah. It took a study of world cultures to feel the need to seek what was so close to me at Moenjodaro, Harappa, Sukkur, Taxila, Kohistan, Thar and Sibi.

A recent opportunity to visit Jamshoro, where I was invited to participate in the First International Art Seminar hosted by the Institute of Art and Design, Sindh University, led to three days of enriching dialogue.

To experience both intellectuals and fakir singers quoting Shah Latif’s verse like a mantra, almost like a verbal and musical talisman not unlike the black thread that is rubbed on the ‘sacred’ instruments of the mendicants at the shrine of the great saint, it took the urban cynic in me some time to understand how deeply woven in the social and cultural fabric is the Sufi message. No theoretical text or debate can convey the intrinsic connection with a timeless philosophy that expresses the concerns of the people in a language that resonates in them.

A renewed optimism among the students and faculty at the Institute of Art and Design seems to have come with the new building that the department recently got after years of struggle. With it appeared a desire to build a bridge between received knowledge and the dynamic ideas of the new century.

The seminar seemed to set the tone for this change by creating space for debate and discussion on a wide range of issues that confront artists as national and international scholars read their papers.

The exchange with poets, writers, scholars, artists and journalists on the artist’s role in society, however fundamental, was important in a society that exists on so many planes of social awareness. The multiple viewpoints presented by the participants communicated how art has moved from the linear thought process of modernism to a lateral embrace of visual culture which recognises context as a critical force.

It was refreshing to see the inclusion of two papers based on the field research of archeologists who are putting together fragments of the history of development of the image and its significance in prehistoric times. Dr Salim claimed the flint tools created from quartz in the Potohar Plateau were one of the earliest creative acts as the maker used his intelligence to select the material and then perfected a technique to craft its serrated edge.

Information on rock carving and cave drawings presented by Dr Ihsan Ali concentrated on the iconography of early man in Pakistan that art historians cannot ignore. The same was true of Dr Misbah Rasheed’s study on the hybrid symbolic imagery of the ceramic mosaic murals at the Lahore Fort that has yet to be studied in-depth and included in the art history curriculum which continues to be predominantly eurocentric.

Dr Ejaz Ikram’s thought-provoking talk focused on the crisis of beauty in the world created by the de-linking of art from intuition, intellect and spirituality that were once responsible for the meditative harmony of Islamic art. According to him, since beauty rests not in innovation but the truth, he urged artists not to abandon tradition but to perfect it if they wanted to rediscover beauty.

Presenting an opposing view was the talk on European design presented by ceramist Maliha Paracha. She highlighted innovative ceramics by the Dutch company Droog that has gained worldwide reputation for its unusual and unpredictable designs that do not compromise functionality.

The artists’ perspective at the seminar, among others, came from Sheherezade, the country’s pioneer potter. With her exquisite visuals, she elaborated on the influence of historical and cultural Lahore on her personal and professional life. The labyrinth of the walled city, Mughal minars that dominate the skyline and the timeless skill of artisans that creates traditional pottery all combined to give her a sense of identity which, along with a global interface, has helped her develop a contemporary vocabulary which has won her global recognition.

This brings to my mind the renowned artist Mona Hartoum whose art is unique to her life. Hartoum, a Palestinian who grew up as a refugee in Lebanon, was stranded in London for a long period due to the war in Lebanon before she decided to pursue her art education in the UK. The trauma of displacement made her restless. According to her, she finds it difficult to stay in one place for too long. This angst is evoked in her work as ideas are translated through material to convey anxiety and restlessness.

Centrality of context was a common thread that ran through the papers. The message for the new entrants in the art community seemed to be that as they learned what constituted art in the studio, and while learning theory, they would also have to remember that the most powerful expression and strongest voice come from lived experience.

In the soul of Jamshoro dwell many untold stories, both ancient and modern. Artists just need to discover them.

Coutesy: Daily Dawn

Source – http://www.dawn.com/2008/04/16/op.htm#3

Asha Chand is a daughter of prominent and well known Sindhi writer Sundri Uttamchandani

By Ramesh Kateja, India

Ms. Asha is daughter of prominent and well known Sindhi writer par excellence Madam Sundri Uttamchandani, who has scores of Sindhi Novels and Stories to her credit, many of those have been translated in numerous languages globally.

In spite of constraints Sindhi language is facing in India, when the language can only survive through spoken medium, Ms Asha’s initiative to produce sleek and smooth Sindhi programmes for television media is indeed commendable and is certainly a right step in right direction.

Although Half an hour a week is too small a slot allotted for Sindhi ( i am sure that too must have been some kind of favour) is good enough for time being.

Its my appeal to Sindhis worldwide to encourage their children to see these TV programmes and create interest in their mind for their Mother Tongue. When I remember those lines of some Indian Sindhi writer:

Allah, iyen ma thiye, jo kitaaban men paRhije,

Hui Sindh ain Sindhi waaran ji Boli.

Translation of the above poetry: Lord, let that not happen, when we would be reading in the books, There was Sindh and their language Sindhi!

Courtesy: Sindhi e-lists/e-groups, April 14, 2008

Officers to learn Sindhi

By: Porf. Gul Agha

Police Chiefs and all other bureaucrats in Sindh should be appointed by the Government of Sindh and should be residents of Sindh. They serve the Sindh. Moreover, officials in Sindh must be fluent in speaking, reading and writing the official language of Sindh, namely Sindhi. Even the British required their officers to learn Sindhi if they served in Sindh. The current set up treats Sindh as a colony of an unenlightened country.

Courtesy: Sindhi e-lists/e-groups, April 13, 2008

DEMOCRACY IN PAKISTAN

Iqbal Tareen’s speech in front of White House, Washington, DC on June 3, 2007.

Mr. Tareen, presented profile of forces, which are the constant threat to freedoms and democracy. He said regimented, small, clandestine, narrowly focused, and power-hungry extremist forces, which can’t ordinarily capture power without disruptive and chaotic conditions will always be found working against establishment of democracy.

These forces are eager to collaborate with military and bureaucracy (Nation’s most powerful institutions) to act as a conduit creating desired conditions to overthrow elected governments. Under representative governance, these forces remain hyper-active, distasteful, and demeaning to elected governments and are quick to unite with dictatorships to backdoor into power.

Although smaller in numbers but these forces are usually concentrated in population clusters and are located in large cities or in strategically important geographic locations. Through the power of disruption these forces can lock-down major industrial cities thus wreaking a massive logistic and economic havoc on any nation.

Mr. Tareen categorically pointed to MQM and religious extremist groups, which play out this role in Pakistan. He said “MQM was created by Zia-ul-Haq as a counter balancing force against influence of Pakistan Peoples Party. Its one-point agenda was and remains to dilute constituencies of all pro-democracy forces especially the one of Pakistan Peoples Party in province of Sindh”

He said “Arming of MQM and its enforcement terrorism against peaceful citizens of major cities of Sindh ensured suppression of any uprising that might have occurred after the execution of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. MQM was nurtured and groomed by General Aslam Beg, financed by moneys of notorious dons and bankers, and graduated into power by General Musharraf”

He reminded all those who were present in the rally how supporters of dictatorship distributed sweets and candies at the death of first Pakistani democracy under Z. A. Bhutto. It also distributed sweets celebrating fall of 2nd democracy under Benazir Bhutto, and it organized Nimaz-e-Shukranas when 3rd democracy under Mian Nawaz Sharif was ousted.

He challenged everyone present to prove if MQM had ever mobilized mass opinion against any dictatorship in Pakistan. He said that “As a matter of fact MQM has remained permanently embedded into Pakistani dictatorships”

Mr. Tareen said that MQM AND DEMOCRACY IN PAKISTAN ARE MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE. ONE CAN’T SURVIVE WITHOUT FALL OF THE OTHER.

Expanding on his thoughts, he said “Whenever there is a representative government in Pakistan, MQM demeans and rejects rule of democracy as a rule of Choudhries, Khans, Sardars, and “Waderas”. If you look into MQM’s track record, it has always teamed up with the worst kind of Choudhries, Sardars, Khans and Waderas when serving their client dictators”

He said that “May 12th Massacre” saw a glimpse of a new kind of lord, which is most ferocious and merciless than Pakistani nation has ever seen. He called them “Shaderas” who planned, executed, condoned, and praised the May 12th Massacre in Karachi. Explaining the term coined by Mr. Tareen, he said Shaderas are new breed of city (Shahar) waderas. On May 12th, MQM Shaderas declared exclusivity on city of Karachi. They declared Karachi as their “Jaagir” by denying right of entry to Pakistan’s Chief Justice and hundreds and thousands of his supporters.

Describing a historic irony, Mr. Tareen said “Before rise of MQM, citizens of Karachi stood like a rock facing dictatorship of Ayub Khan. Today Karachi has been placed on the wrong side of history. Not by choice but by terror. Karachi deserves freedom from fear and tyranny. Witnessing Aaj TV and GEO trashed by street scavengers; when we see Pakistan’s oldest and leading newspaper Dawn poured in blood; when we see opposing members of the media coming under MQM-Musharraf fire, we know Karachi is yearning for freedom”

Addressing citizens of Karachi in Urdu, he said “Karachi, we can hear you loud and clear. Your calling for rescue from ransom and intimidation has touched millions of hearts in Pakistan and around the world. Once again you want to lead the nation to a new dawn of freedom from fear, tyranny and dictatorship. You want to join millions of your brothers and sisters in this holy struggle to restore individual and collective dignity in Pakistan”

He continued addressing in Urdu and said “My brothers and sister of Karachi, the moment has arrived to break your silence. Break away from the chains to claim your rightful place in history. Just remember MQM  and democracy in Pakistan are mutually exclusive. There is only MQM between you and your freedom”

Addressing President Bush and facing White House he said “Mr. President you know this era will end and it will end soon. The new dawn will bring democracy and freedom to 160 million Pakistanis. It is up to you to decide whether you want to side with weak dictator or 160 Million Pakistanis? He added “Siding with the people you can seal US-Pakistani friendship until eternity”

NO HONKING

News: Stop honking! That was the message sent out by traffic police yesterday in Mumbai, India. Mumbai’a police marked World Health Day, April 7, as a “NO Honking Day.”

They were trying to build awareness of the effects of noise pollution in India’s financial capital, where it sometimes seems as if they city’s 1.5 million drivers are honking their horns at the same time.

Courtesy: 24 hours, Tuesday, April 8, 2008

Role of SindhWorkis (Sindhi Traders in foreign countries) in Gadar Revolt & INA under Subhash Chandra Bose

The Sindhi Hindu community uprooted as the result of India’s Partition, now girdles the globe. But then for Sindhi traders, globalization was never a new concept. For decades, well before Partition, Sindhi traders (commonly known as SindhWorkis) had established themselves practically in every city of the world, with larger concentration in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia and Malaysia; through the Middle East to Africa and Gibraltar, and across Britain and Europe to the U.S. and Latin America.

These SindhWorkis or Sindhi traders earned a fine reputation for trustworthiness and honesty in foreign countries. Their word was known as a bond. They supported local, social events and aided worthwhile charities from time to time, locally and in Sindh and India. They were religious and remained steadfast in their family, social and cultural roots and religious identity. Largely their donations were to religious institutions, mandirs (temples) and gurdwaras but many like Bahi Wattumall, Chellarams. Bhai Maghnamal of K A J Chotirmull and many others gave much for educational and social purposes for Sindhis and others.

The SindhWorkis kept a low profile while giving aid and support. As the grand old man heading the Watumalls is said to remark when someone questioned him as to why he does not publicize his charities, he quoted Rahim who was a great philanthropist, “dene wala koi aur hai; log brahm mujh pay kyoun karen!” (Means: Giver is Some One Else – implying that there is some Higher Power that is the Giver – So why should people think that I am the giver?). Later, when Watumalls established the public foundation for Education, naturally their charities had to come out in the open.

By and large SindhWorkis remained aloof from politics. Many suffered almost silently the pain of India for its being a colony of the British but there was no organization worth the name till the first decade of the twentieth century through which they could channel their frustration and funds . A change in the attitude of the SindhWorkis came about with the formation of the Gadar Party early in the second decade of the twentieth century.

Establishment of the Gadar Party:

The Gadar Movement was established around 1912-1913. It was the first organized violent bid for freedom after the uprising (Indian War of Independence) of 1857. Gadar in Punjabi means “revolt” – and indeed this revolt was the saga of courage, valor and determination of overseas Indians to free India from the shackles of British slavery. Clearly, the Gadarites wanted to liberate India by the force of arms. The movement did not achieve its intended objective. However, it awakened a sleeping India and left a major impact on India’s struggle for freedom. The heroism, courage and sacrifices of the Gadarites inspired many freedom fighters to continue their mission. This attempt to free their country was made by Indians living overseas, particularly in the United States and Canada. Although, the overwhelming majority of the Gadarites were Sikhs and the main centers of revolutionary activity were in Canada and the United States, the movement spread to

other centers as well, such as Shanghai, Hong Kong and Singapore. Many of the leaders were of other parties and from different parts of India, and amongst them were Rash Bihari Bose, Barkutullah, Seth Husain Rahim, Tarak Nath Das, Vishnu Ganesh Pingley, Virendra Nath Chattopadhyay (younger brother of politician-poetess Sarojani Naidu), Bhupendra Nath Datta (brother of Swami Vivekananda) , Ajit Singh (uncle of Shahid Bhagat Sigh), and Bhai Bhagwan Singh.

It was as the result of Rash Bihari Bose’s effort that some Sindhis also became sympathizers and helpers of the Gadar Movement. Notable among them were Dr. Choithram P. Gidwani, who was in regular touch with Rash Bihari Bose, not so much by normal correspondence but through messages sent by word of mouth by friendly couriers. Dr. Choithram had introduced quite a few associates to Rash Bihari Bose, and amongst them were two of his close friends Lokram Sharma and his brother Vishnu Sharma. The two Sharma brothers remained in close touch with Rash Bihari Bose. Dr. Choithram had also been in touch with Lala Har Dayal who had been a faculty member at Stanford University in U.S.A. for about two years. He was the central pioneering figure and the force behind the newly formed Gadar organization.

Please note the following extract on page 89 of The Sindh Story by K.R.Malkani (published by Sindhi Academy Delhi):

“One mid-night in 1913, a lame Muslim complaining of severe stomach pain, arrived in a bullock cart from Kotri, at the residence of Lokram Sharma in Hyderabad (Sindh). Once in, it was clear, that he was Rash Bihari Bose, the famous revolutionary in disguise who had thrown a bomb at Lord Hardinge in Chandni Chowk, Delhi in 1912. Rash Bihari Bose, Lokram Sharma and his brother Vishnu Sharma had been in the same house in Delhi on that bomb-throw day. Dr. Choithram arranged money for Rash Bihari Bose and sent him to Amritsar on way to Japan via Afghanistan”.

Note: Although it is said that Rash Behari Bose had ‘thrown” the bomb, it seems that he had ‘master-minded’ the event and was present nearby to direct the bomb-throw. On December 23, 1912, Lord Harding, the Viceroy of India, was to make his entry into Delhi in a procession. At 11.45am the procession reached Dhulya Katra in Chandni Chowk. A bomb ripped through the procession. The Viceroy escaped, but the man to his right in his howdah was killed and 20 spectators were injured. In the ensuing man-hunt Master Amir Chand, Avadh Behari and Bal Mukund were arrested and hanged in Delhi jail.. Basanta Viswas, who threw the bomb, disguised as a lady, was hanged in Ambala jail. Rash Behari Bose averted arrest owing to a clever disguise. The event, as observed by Sir Valentine Chirol, had a “tremendous effect on the subsequent revolutionary activities” . Rash Behari Bose remained on the move from Punjab to Uttar Pradesh to Bengal in different disguises. A police

officer noted that Rash Behari Bose could have been a “great stage actor” instead of a revolutionary if he so desired.

Rash Behari Bose’s escape from Sindh arranged by Dr. Choithram had also a touch of drama. Rash Behari wore a long beard with a wig of flowing white hair and carrying a long seven-foot pole covered with multi-colorful cloth and a large number of bells attached, he marched on, with banging the pole and repeating loud cries of ‘Alakh Niranjan’, ‘Anal Haq’, ‘Ya Ali, Ya Hussain’ and such religious slogans as though seeking to draw attention to himself but the result actually was that everyone kept away from him, regarding him as a demented sadhu or dervish (holy man), Not only in Sindh but elsewhere too he kept up the same charade, believing firmly that the surest way to avoid detection is to be loud in inviting attention to yourself.

As it is, an organizational set-up had already been created in Sindh to help revolutionaries in hiding and in assisting them to escape. Here again, we turn to page 89 of The Sindh Story by K.R.Malkani, which tells us:

Commissioner of Police

“In 1910, Acharya Kripalani, Kaka Kalelkar, Swami Govindanand, Dr. Choithram and others set up the Brahmacharya Ashram in Hyrerabad (Sindh)… This was not only an institution to produce patriotic young men – though song, drama and gymnastics but also a forum for other activities, including shelter for revolutionaries- in hiding.

“Dr. Choithram, Swami Alaram, Pandit Deendayal Vachaspati and Swami Satya Dev went on cow protection tour of Sindh singing, ‘Behl sahib khe karyo salam’ (‘Salute Sir Bullock’) and collected 3,000 rupees for the Brahmacharya Ashram.”

The Brahmachaya Ashram had nominated a number of members and well-wishers in all districts and many towns of Sindh. Amongst them was Dr. Vatanmal Gidwani of Mirpur Khas, Prof. Ghanshyam Shivdasani in Hyderabad and many others.

The Sindh Story by K.R.Malkani also tells us of how Baba Gurdit Singh, carrying a reward on his head ‘for his arrest dead or alive’ of 40,000 Rupees due to his part in hiring the Japanese ship komagatamaru was sheltered safely in Sindh for a period of three years – thanks to assistance from the Brahmacharya Ashram.

An interesting footnote should also be added here. Dr. Choithram Gidwani had given Rupees 845/ to Rash Bihari Bose, along with a gold bangle donated by Dr. Choithram’s elder brother’s wife, to facilitate his escape to Japan. Long after, when Rash Bihari Bose had reached Japan to settle down there, became a Japanese citizen after marrying a beautiful Japanese girl from the respected Soma family, Dr Choithram received a message through an intermediary, along with Rupees 845/ and the message simply said,

“My wife Tosiko’s parents have given me a gift; call it dowry if you will but it is a gift of love. So I must return Rupees 845/ for they belong to the Brahmacharya and the Cow – and the Cow must not be deprived on my account. As to the lady who donated the Bangle to me, I touch her feet. The bangle adorned my wife’s jewelry box for a while which now, in its entirety, she has donated to the Cause dear to you and us all. Let the Bangle then serve the Cause; and let us pray for the Cause and if time permits, even for us. . . . ”.

NOTE: Apart from the message to Dr. Choithram, Rash Behari Bose simultaneously also sent a message of Regards to Sister “Kumari Jethi”. To her were thanks for the 7-foot curtain rod stripped from the curtains in her drawing room, covered with her two colorful saris which served as his walking pole and the ghungroos and bells, she attached to the pole. Possibly the reference to “Kumari Jethi” is to Kumari Jethi Sipahimalani who later became a Member of the Sindh Legislative Assembly and was herself a freedom fighter, crusading for the rights of Sindhis in India after the Partition. But there is no clear confirmation yet to identify this reference to “Kumari Jethi”.

Rash Behari Bose gained prominence in Japan, particularly during World War II. With the help of Captain Mohan Singh and Sardar Pritam Singh, he formed the Indian National Army (I.N.A.) on September 1, 1942. Rash Behari was elected President and later gave Supreme Command of the I.N.A. to Subash Chandra Bose in 1943. Rash Behari expired before the end of World War II, on January 21, 1945.

Sindhi Code-Names:

There was considerable sympathy and support among the people of Sindh for the Gadar Movement. Those connected with the movement through efforts of, and contact with, Rash Bihari Bose, however, were very cautious and circumspect. For instance, Vishnu Sharma was code-named “Teesra Ishwar” (“third God” – a reference possibly to the third god in the Trinity of Gods – Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu). His brother, Lokram Sharma, who also, along with him, was in the same house in Delhi with Rash Bihari Bose on the day of bomb-throw at Lord Hardinge, had the code-name of “Teesra Ishwar ka Bhai” (“Brother of Third God”). Dr. Choithram Gidwani had the code-name of “Brahmadassa” which may possibly have been selected at random, unconnected with any particular association. (Brahmadassa is an uncommon Sindhi name. It was the name of the discoverer of the confluence of Sindhu and Saraswati Rivers. Brahmadassa started life in an Ashram as a Brahmachari but later renounced his

vow of Brahmacharya and married Rishi Vaswana’s daughter, settling along the Saraswati River. Thus the code name of Brahmadassa had no real connection with Dr.Choithram Gidwani’s life as he, throughout, intended to remain- and did remain – a Brahamachari) .

There was lasting advantage in the secrecy maintained by Sindhis in their code-names. When a person – who was very high up in the Gadar movement – turned a traitor and a police-informer, Gadar movement was broken up as all the names of the participants were with the Police. Sindhis with their code-names were protected as, despite a nation-wide investigation and hunt, their identities remained hidden. At least a dozen men with names of Ishwar Das, Ishwar Singh and such like, along with their brothers, were questioned by the Police, from time to time, on the suspicion that they may be the culprits referred to as, “Teesra Ishwar” or “Teesra Ishwar ka Bhai”

As many as 145 Gadarites were hanged by Indian Government, 308 were sentenced for longer than 14 years and many more for lesser terms. Some of them passed years in KALA PANI (Black waters) in the Andamans.

Fourteen Gadarites remained hidden in Sindh for long, sheltered through aid from the Brahmacharya Ashram. They moved out to safety, with changed identities and in disguise with somewhat altered appearance, when the police- hunt for them was no longer hot.

Dr. Choithram as also most Sindhis had by now had begun to embrace the Gandhian doctrine of non-violence as the way to make the British leave India. They no longer subscribed to the Gadarite philosophy of force and violence to gain independence. But even so, they felt honour bound to protect the Gadarites from police-hunt. “We have promises to keep”, they said, and they kept their promise. They also said among themselves, “If Gandhiji knew, he would understand”, but they left Gandhiji uninformed.

Support of SindhWorkis:

Sindhi traders (SindhWorkis) began to support the Gadar Movement. Certainly, the SindWorkis were not in the frontline of the movement. Their support largely consisted of financial donations – often substantial – to the movement. In one case, the firms of Pohoomal Bros, D.Chelaram, M.Dialdas & J.T.Chanrai of Hong Kong contributed on a large scale to a fund for the purchase of ammunition for an armed rising by Gadarites. Quite apart from this ad hoc assistance, SindhWorkis were paying regularly to the Gadarite treasury. The SindhWorki support also extended, in many cases, to providing safe-houses to hide the Gadar revolutionaries. Moreover, SindhWorkis were able to help Gadarites in passing their important and confidential messages as they had a vast and intricate network covering practically every country with associates, correspondents and in many cases, even branch offices.

Again, as The Sindh Story by K.R.Malkani points out, “When Subhash Chandra Bose set up INA in the Far East, his best and biggest supporters were the Sindhi businessmen there. Both Subhas Bose and Gandhiji referred to Sindhis as “World Citizens” since they are to be found everywhere.”

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose is immortalized in our History for having formed the Azad Hind Government in exile, and regrouping and leading the Indian National Army to battle against the allies in Imphal and Burma during the World War II.

Sindhi families abroad donated large sums of money, ornaments, jewelry to support the Independence movement of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose.

Among the Sindhworkis who distinguished themselves by supporting these freedom movements are:

1) Wassiamull Assumall 2) J. Kimatrai3) Utoomal Assudomal 4) Gangaram, Singapore

5) Jhamandas Melwani, Hongkong/Singapore 6) Sehwani family (Manila) 7) K a J Chotirmall, Hongkong/Singapore8 ) Kewalram Corpoartion, Japan 9) Gulraj Corpoartion, Japan 10) P Parsram, Japan 11) Watumull’s Hawaii 12) Watanmal Bulchand 13) Chanrais 14) D Chellaram 15) G. Assanmall 16) Jhangimull and many others.

via – Dial V. Gidwani- Sindhu American

April 03, 2008

Khaksar Tehrik

In Memory of the Khaksar Martyrs of March 19, 1940

Researcher & Author

By Nasim Yousaf

On March 19, 1940, the Khaksar Tehrik (Movement) was banned by the Government of Punjab in British India , and Allama Mashriqi, his sons, and a very large number of Khaksars were imprisoned. In 1941, the Movement was banned on an all-India basis. Investigative research reveals that the ban on the Khaksar Tehrik and Mashriqi’s imprisonment were the result of mutual interest of the anti-Khaksar elements, including the British and the All-India Muslim League (AIML).

Both saw Mashriqi and his Movement as a threat and sought to secure themselves. The following briefly sheds light on British and AIML motivations and the subsequent banning of the Khaksar Movement.

Article available on the below mentioned Url:

http://www.allamamashraqi.com/grandsonsarticles.html

April 01, 2008

1000 Proverbs and Sayings

1. A bad beginning makes a bad ending. 2. A bad corn promise is better than a good lawsuit. 3. A bad workman quarrels with his tools. 4. A bargain is a bargain. 5. A beggar can never be bankrupt. 6. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. 7. A bird may be known by its song. 8. A black hen lays a white egg. 9. A blind leader of the blind. 10. A blind man would be glad to see.11. A broken friendship may be soldered, but will never be sound.

Continue reading 1000 Proverbs and Sayings

Meet the ‘new’ Asif Zardari

By Karan Thapar

NEW DELHI- Most people, I believe, grow to fill the responsibility placed on them. Promotions are, therefore, an act of faith. But that said and done I’m flabbergasted by the change in Asif Zardari. He’s literally become a different person.

The Asif I remember was a jovial tease, informal, chatty, fond of the good life and determined not to be boring or even serious. We first met the night after his wedding. “Benazir has told me all about you,” he said with mock gravity. “I’m on my best behaviour!” He then spent the evening pulling my leg and, frequently, his wife’s too. Weeks after Benazir first became prime minister we were together on her special flight from Islamabad to Karachi. It was an aged propeller plane which flew at a sedate speed. Sitting in the prime ministerial drawing room at the front, Asif looked at his watch. We’d been traveling for nearly two hours. “If you’d stuck to PIA not only would you have arrived but you’d be in the hotel pool by now!” I protested I wasn’t in a hurry. “Yeah? Let’s see if you return with us!” I didn’t. The Asif I meet two weeks ago was very different. Now the adjectives I would use are measured, emollient and deliberately self-effacing. Of course, he’s still charming, chatty and can’t resist teasing but there’s new gravitas, a consciousness of responsibility and a convincing sense of wisdom. Consider two examples. I pointed out that Nawaz Sharif would keep the PPP-led government unstable. Benazir’s reply would have been defensive. Asif chose to turn my question on its head. “And I welcome that,” he said. “I need people to keep me in check.”

“You need to be kept in check?” I asked, puzzled. “Power is a tricky thing,” he responded. “What better can I ask for than my own ally should check me?”

It was a winning answer but also utterly unexpected. How many politicians on the brink of power welcome the prospect of being kept uncertain and unstable? Even if he didn’t mean it, it was the perfect thing to say. However, it wasn’t just fluent cleverness that made Asif so engagingly different. He also showed vision and courage. When I asked about Kashmir and the role it has played separating. India and Pakistan, Asif, in a simple heartfelt reply, reversed Pakistan’s stand.

Let’s put Kashmir aside for a wiser generation to sort out, he said. Let’s not be hostage to the UN resolutions, he added. Let’s get on with the rest of the relationship and once we’ve learnt live and love each other then tackle Kashmir. Stunned, I made Asif repeat this three times. Not once did he use the opportunity to resile. Each time he re-affirmed what he’d said.

Finally, I asked: “Can you carry your countrymen? Can you handle the backlash this would provoke?”

Asif’s reply was simple. There were no flourishes or braggadocio. “That’s the test of leadership,” and he left it at that.

I can’t predict what sort of government the PPP under Asif Zardari will give Pakistan. I can’t even state Asif won’t change this position. Politicians often do and Asif has faced flak from the Jamaat at home and the Hurriayat in Kashmir. But I do know that Asif did not get carried away. This was not indiscretion or impetuousness. He meant what he said and, what’s more, he meant to say it.

In fact, when I asked if Dr. Manmohan Singh chooses to invite the new PM what the response would be, Asif said not only would the prime minister come but so too Nawaz Sharif, Asfandyar Wali Khan, Fazlur Rehman, Altaf Hussain and Asif Himself. A new Pakistan would seek to be friend India.

I’m therefore full of hope. And whilst I accept hope can easily be dashed, I would say there’s need to encourage this one. That’s the challenge facing our government. How do we assist Asif Zardari without embarrassing or undermining him?

Courtesy: Hindustan Times

Sindhu Putra, Spiritual Leader of Sindhu Civilization in 5000 BC

By: Gul Karamchand

It was with utmost interest that I read Theme no. 9 at about Sindhu Putra, the Spiritual Leader of Sindh and the subcontinent in 5,000 BCE.

It is a marvelous account, with dramatic highlights, and touches the heart. Certainly it is worth reading, circulating. and reprinting.

The brutal assassination of Sindhu Putra in 5,000 BC brings home to us with sadness that the sacred soil of Sindh has, from time immemorial, suffered from brutality, violence, murder as also executions under false legal cover and assai nation of the best and brightest by hired guns.

To see this theme 9, please open http://www.sindhulogy.org and a click of the top heading of ‘Projects’, will list the themes from Return of the Aryans – and among those is Theme 9 about Sindhu Putra.

Jeay Sindh Mahaz (JSM) paid tribute to Punjab for its leading role for the independence of judiciary

HYDERABAD, March 10: National congress of the Jeay Sindh Mahaz held in Radhan, Dadu district, on Sunday paid tribute to the Punjab for its leading role in the struggle for independence of judiciary and said that it was for the first time that the Punjab had risen against dictatorship.

It observed that during the February 18 elections, the people of Sindh had unanimously voted against the Musharraf government due to his dictatorial and anti-Sindh polices.

It said that it was now the responsibility of elected members of the assemblies to come up to expectations of the masses and ameliorate their lot.

The congress called upon the new government to discard the Kalabagh dam project and announce a judicious National Finance Commission award according to international principles.

It demanded abolition of local bodies system, saying that it was a ‘conspiracy against national unity and development of Sindh.’

Announcing support to lawyers’ struggle, it called for reinstatement of sacked judges of superior judiciary.

The congress introduced some amendments to the JSM constitution and manifesto and observed two-minute silence on the death of former prime minister Benazir Bhutto.

The congress was presided over by JSM convener Abdul Khaliq Junejo. Noted intellectual comrade Rochi Ram attended the congress as an observer. In his speech, he said that true democracy would remain a misnomer unless the constitution of the country was made secular.

Courtesy: Sindhi e-lists/ e-groups, March 12, 2008

Scholarships for higher studies in South Korean Universities

All of those who have passed Bachelor’s/Master’s course and now wishing to continue your studies further in MS /PhD course then please come forward, South Korean universities are waiting for you.

As South Korean high-tech research institutes and universities are now emerging with the implementation of latest and advanced technologies. An imaginative research work is going on rapidly for becoming future’s hub of engineering research and technologies. It is now policy of all the high-tech research institutes, Universities along with the Government to increase the number of foreign students. Many students from Punjab and NWFP have tried to search those institutes/universities for getting scholarships and they succeed and now they are studying here with the total support of universities but unfortunately no one from Sindh has tried to avail these opportunities.

This is my request indeed I emphasize that Please search universities, appropriate Labs and forward your documents along with resume and research proposal to the concerned professors and If you were accepted by professor then write to universities international cooperation offices or professor to bear your living expenses along with tuition and dormitory fees in shape of scholarship or any other package. I am sure if you guys seriously and sincerely tried you will definitely avail that chance.

Courtesy:  Sindhi e-lists/e-groups, March 09, 2008

Bombay Presidency, Sindh & Sindhis

USA, TX: The president of the Sindhi Association of North America, Aziz Narejo has been invited to speak at an international seminar at the University of Mumbai. The seminar is being organized by the Department of Sindhi, University of Mumbai, at the Vidyanagari Campus on 11th March on ‘Bombay Presidency, Sindh & Sindhis’. Mr. Narejo is invited to present a paper on ‘Bombay Presidency, Sindh & Sindhis, Political Implications’.

March 07, 2008

4th March – A Day to renew pledges for Sindhi Rights

By Khalid Hashmani

Today is March 4th, a day to celebrate Sindhiat, Sindhi language and Sindhi struggle. Exactly, forty one (41) years ago, the last generation of Sindhis refused to give up on their rights by sacrificing their blood on this day of 1967. The legacy of their resolve and commitment has taken unto a new meaning.

Today, is the day when the the next generation of Sindhis should be renewing their vow to keep the light of Sindhiat alive for ever. Sindh has survived many troubles and cruelties.

Today, we must:

Remember the great student movement of late 1960’s which never gave up on their motherland.

Remember the journalists and staff of the Sindhi newspaper who sacrificed their jobs but did not bow to the rulers who wanted them to stop writing against the Kala Bagh and other dreadful dams on the River Indus.

Remember the Sindhi sons and daughters who lost their lives and underwent torture, imprisonment and other cruelties for betterment of Sindh and Pakistan. Several sons Of Sindh including Dr. Safdar Sarki remains behind bars.

Pledge to re-energize Sindhi struggle for their rights, justice, and control over their natural resources.

Our struggle has survived so far because all succeeding generations continue to fight any and all injustices. The new generation of Sindhis must show the same resolve.

For the last five thousand years, Sindh has seen many cruel invaders and many peaceful migrants who, in their own way, have tried to destroy or enrich Sindhi civilization. Sindh’s history clearly shows that those who came in peace, contributed not only to the civilization of Sindh but left an ever lasting mark of their culture on it. But, those who came in violence, ultimately perished leaving nothing tangible to appreciate or remember.

Today Sindh too is the home of many people of diverse cultures. It is up to these newcomers to realize that only by joining the rich and all encompassing culture of Sindh, they will enrich themselves from the peaceful and sufi nature of it and make it more richer. If they choose the politics of confrontation and cruelty in their deeds such as denying water to the inhabitants of Sindh or imposing their culture on peaceful Sindhis, they too will perish without leaving any significant mark on the civilization.

Let Sindh live for ever! let Sindhi language foster for ever! Let other languages and cultures of Sindh enrich and add their beauty to Sindh’s culture and language!

Courtesy: Sindhi e-lists/ e-groups, March 4, 2008

PROSPERITY FOR BOTH URBAN AND RURAL PEOPLE IS GOAL OF EVERY CIVILIZED SOCIETY

By Ali Nawaz Memon, USA

1. South Korea has practiced a policy of proportional development. Under this policy, for every infrastructure development in urban area, proportional development has taken place in rural areas with objective of providing regional balance and therefore reducing the need of urban to rural migration.

Continue reading PROSPERITY FOR BOTH URBAN AND RURAL PEOPLE IS GOAL OF EVERY CIVILIZED SOCIETY

Road to Riches for Sindhis

By: Ali Nawaz Memon

We have been fighting for FAIRNESS IN FEDERATION of Pakistan. It means that we Sindhis have been asking for our share of riches or wealth of Pakistan. Of course no body listens to us. When I raised that question again during a seminar last weekend in Washington, I annoyed many non-Sindhi friends. They saw it as Punjabi and Muhajir bashing.

We must continue our struggle to make Sindh and Sindhis prosperous through political and collective means. However, personal struggle is the key for success. If we want to be rich, we must become familiar with ROAD TO RICHES.

As a practitioner of economic development, when I look around, I see many rich people. Who is rich? From point of view of Sindhis or average Pakistanis, some one who has assets of about one million dollars, is plenty rich. It does not mean that some one has a million dollars in bank account. It means that value of his home, cars, other investments is about one million dollars.

How did average American get rich, that is a long story. Let us focus on relatively rich Sindhis only in USA and Sindh.

Some are born rich. They inherit lands and business from family. Some have become rich through corrupt means of bribery and dishonesty. But let us focus on self made people who have traveled honest and hard road to riches.

I think blessing of Creator has to be there. After that, I see following characteristics of relatively rich friends:

1. They were good students in schools and colleges. If you are not a good student today, you have to start studying harder and become a better student. You can improve yourself any time.

2. They chose professions which had demand in the society– doctor, engineer, accountant, banker, business etc. People must need your expertise and service. They must be willing to pay for your service. You cannot become rich if your education and expertise is not in demand.

3. Not only they got degrees, but they learned and mastered their subjects. Every person with medical degree does not become rich. But if you have studied enough and become a good doctor, you have a good chance of success.

4. They entered professional field. Being competent and good in their field, they got jobs and learned more on jobs.

5. They struggled and got advanced degrees or education in Pakistan or abroad. Foreign education was not essential but helped a lot since they got higher and more specialized education. Many good professionals have become rich enough with pure Pakistani education.

6. They saved some money every month and invested it for purchase of home, land, business etc. The savings and additional income that it generates is very important towards becoming rich. As an example, a deposit of one lakh rupees in a Pakistani bank can get you about one thousand rupees per month for rest of your life.

Courtesy: Sindhi e-lists/e-groups, Feb 26, 2008

This is first time that the pro-people parties have captured power in Islamabad

PPP, ML-N, ANP & Expectations of Oppressed Masses

By Ayaz Latif Palijo Advocate

Our major issues can only be solved by implementing 1940 resolution, but in the mean time we can forge the unity between lower middle / middle class Sindhis, Balochs and other nations of Pakistan. Musharraf government, since assuming reins of power, has been trying to convert Sindhis and Balochs minorities in their homelands, but at the same time it is also betraying the interests of poor Pakhtun and common Punjabi, and their resentment has been reflected through election results of Punjab and Pakhtun Khawah.

I have also gone through the mails of Khalid Hashmnai and Aftab Qazi sahib, we all appreciate their commitment and sincerity, but when some of our friends & civil society groups in Sindh suggest that instead of making an alliance with allies of Musharaf, PPP should join hands with ML-N, ANP,Baloch Nationalists & Lawyers, they want legitimacy and acceptance of PPP

govt for next 5 years. In past some of our oversees friends & intellectuals twice endorsed PPP’s polices of joining hands with Ghulam Ishaq Khan, Aslam Beg, JUI, MQM, Hamid Nasir Chattha, Manzoor Watoo, FATA MNAs etc, with a justification that let them form the govt, tiny issues would be solved latter. The outcome of this ad-hoc policy was witnessed by all of us in 1990

and 1996.

This time half of the PPP seats in NA have been given by people of Punjab and if once again PPP would repeat the same mistakes and if assemblies are dissolved it would be nearly impossible for PPP to get the same results from Punjab, because the civil society and majority of People of Punjab are not only committed to the restoration of independent judiciary they are opponents of the terrorism in Karachi.

PPP and Pakistan have been made to travel this well worn path many times in past 20 years. This is first time that the pro-people parties have captured power in Islamabad through relatively fair elections (off course except Karachi, Hyderabad, Thar, Balochistan and some areas of Central Punjab). The General’s regime is trying to bring doubts and hostility in the political

community through its puppets like Shaikh Rasheed, Arbab Raheem, Chodhri Prervez Ilhai etc and if we keep getting dictations from Musharaf and his team we will push Pakistan into a bigger disaster then 1970 and 1977.

Prior to assassination of Shaheed BB the govt after sidelining the two major mainstream political parties, planning to hold utterly fake elections but the entire scenario changed on 27th December and thereafter People of Sindh, Civil Society of Punjab, European Union, Common Wealth, General Kiani and other main stakeholders refused to support Musharaf’s plan of rigging.

Resultantly we all not only witnessed the well deserved success of PPP and Nawaz League but welcomed it considering it as result of our eight years long joint anti Musharaf struggle. Lets take advantage of it, lets not waste this historic opportunity, if we stand firm, if we think beyond personal and party interests we can force Musharaf to resign, we can get the genuine provincial autonomy and we can have a prosperous Pakistan based on principles of equality, peace and justice.

I second Aziz Narejo, Raza Rabbani, Dr. Manzoor Aijaz, Nafees Sidiqui, Akhtiar Beg, Raza Abidi, Aitzaz Ahsan, Asma Jahangeer, Ayaz Amir, Imran Khan, Mian Nawaz Sharif, Siddiq ul Faruq, Dr. Farzana Bari and others that alliance with Musharaf’s team would not only be a betrayal of the vote of the people, it will ruin the aspirations of the people who want to see a real change. I think that this is high time when the liberal and democratic forces should concentrate on strategic polices instead of ad-hoc tactics.

Here I would like to bring into your notice that after several bomb blasts and operation in FATA and Wazirastan thousands of people of tribal areas are

shifting to Lahore, Mulan, Karachi, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah, Faisalabad and Hyderabad, this would not only bring an alarming demographic change but may introduce a wave of violence and extremism in relatively

peaceful Punjab and Sindh. Lets pre-empt these threats, lets strengthen our political and cultural bonds with liberal, democratic Punjabi, Seraiki and Pakhtun masses and with peace-loving and unbiased patriotic Urdu speaking Sindhis like Wajeehudin Ahmed, Anees Haroon, Sabeehudin Ahmed, Rasheed Rizvi, Iqbal Haider, Adeeb Rizwi, Ameer Hani Muslim, Naeem Qureshi, Khilji

Arif Husssain, Maqbool Baqar, Rahat Saeed, Sarmad Jalal Usmani, Rashid Rabani, Nafees Siddiqui, Musheer Alam, Zahida Hina, Anwe Zaheer, Mujahid Barelvi, Sadiqa Salahudin and others.

In the mean time our Sindhi and Baloch friends should seriously think: how to bring their rural masses up and how to replace feudals, Peers and tribal heads from their national political scene with committed middle class, how to reverse the past 8 years anti-people decisions of Musharaf regime, how to apprise the developed world specially USA, UK, India, China and European Union, about their genuine grievances, how to strengthen bonds with oppressed people of other provinces Pakistan.

Feb 23, 2008

Courtesy: Sindhi e-lists/e-groups.

Let us strive to fulfill it together so her mission is fulfilled

By: Dr Javaid Laghari

We are pleased that PPP has won with the largest number of seats in Pakistan and Sindh… While people were celebrating and dancing on the streets, I felt grieved that ‘she’ is not with us today in flesh. One will only feel happy when we are able to deliver on her vision and legacy to making Pakistan a truly democratic, moderate, and prosperous state. She believed in equality for all, freedom of speech and expression, an independent judiciary, supremacy of parliament, and in improving the lives of all Pakistanis. She believed in good neighbourly relations, and in Pakistan playing a key and responsible role in the community of world nations.

Her legacy is there in the party manifesto and her speeches, press conferences, and her books. Let us strive to fulfill it together so her mission is fulfilled.

Feb 20, 2008

Kosovo declares Independence

Review & Outlook : The Birth of Kosovo February 18, 2008

When Slovenia declared independence in 1991, Belgrade sent in tanks. When Croatia and Bosnia did the same, the Serbs started wars that left a quarter million dead. So Serbia’s resort to violent rhetoric in response to Kosovo’s declaration of independence yesterday counts as a kind of Balkan progress.

The newborn isn’t out of danger, with Serbia and Russia wishing Kosovo ill. But the presence of NATO troops, and expected swift recognition by the U.S. and major European powers, ought to calm nerves and end the last territorial dispute in the Balkans. By taking the lead during the 1999 aerial war that forced Slobodan Milosevic’s ethnic cleansers from Kosovo and now on independence, the U.S. is shepherding one more Muslim nation to freedom—not that it will get credit for it in the Islamic world.

The proliferation of small states since the fall of communism has made Europe more stable and democratic, from Estonia to Macedonia. A sovereign Kosovo, which follows the entry of even tinier Montenegro into the club of nations, can be a force for good in the region and in the wider Europe. Though lawyers may quibble, Kosovo differs in no way from the other stand-alone parts of Yugoslavia that won their freedom after 1991, and are now better off for it. Serbian lobbyists portray the Kosovars as Muslim terrorists, but that strains credulity, given their moderate and secular practice of Islam (and Christianity) and their stated commitment to democracy.

Kosovar leaders say they want their country to join the European Union and NATO, which would open their borders to free trade and bring them into European security structures. The Kosovar Albanians also seem aware that their new state will be judged on their protection of minority Serbs and willingness to make up with former enemies. International oversight and scrutiny can help ensure these promises are kept. Western chaperones will also have to watch the fragile multiethnic constructs in nearby Bosnia and Macedonia, where separatists may try to use Kosovo independence to push for a breakup.

Russia has called for an emergency U.N. Security Council meeting to revoke the independence declaration. With no troops or permanent interests on the ground, however, Moscow may be happy merely to score political points against the West—and then, as usual, abandon the Serbs to their fate… (Wall Street Journal)

About Eggs

Eggs are high in cholesterol and contributed to heart disease. But at the same time eggs are low in calories and are a rich source of protein, B vitamins and omega- 3. Therefore, use eggs with caution. If you are diabetic, you should consult with your physician and, if you need to restrict your consumption of egg yolks, then use egg with out yolk.

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