List of the National Languages of India

India has a diverse list of spoken languages among different groups of people. At least 800 different languages and around 2000 dialects have been identified. The Constitution of India has stipulated the usage of Hindi and English to be the twoofficial languages of communication for the national government. Additionally, it contains a list of 22 official languages(including Hindi and English). These languages are entitled to representation on the Official Language Commission, and a candidate in an examination conducted for national government service may opt to take the exam in any of these languages.

As drafted, English ceased to exist as an official language (on par with Hindi) in 1965, after which it was intended to continue as an “associate additional official language” until such time that a duly appointed committee can decide on a full-scale transition to Hindi, based on a periodic review. However, due to protests from South Indian states where there is low Hindi penetration, the “twin language” system is still in vogue. Due to rapid industrialization, and a bustling multinational influence in the economy, English continues to be a popular and influential means of communication in the government and day-to-day business, and moves to replace it have effectively been shelved.

Official languages

Two languages are the languages used by the central administration:

  1. Hindi is the language used by the Central Government when communicating with the states of Hindi Belt
  2. English is the Associate official language and the language to be used while communicating with the states.

A total of 22 languages are recognized by the Constitution of India:

  1. Assamese — official language of Assam
  2. Bengali — official language of Tripura and West Bengal
  3. Bodo — official language of Assam
  4. Dogri — official language of Jammu and Kashmir
  5. Gujarati — official language of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu and Gujarat
  6. Hindi — official language of Arunachal Pradesh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal
  7. Kannada — official language of Karnataka
  8. Kashmiri — official language of Jammu and Kashmir
  9. Konkani — official language of Goa and Mangalore
  10. Malayalam — official language of Kerala and Lakshadweep
  11. Manipuri or Meithei — official language of Manipur
  12. Marathi — official language of Maharashtra
  13. Nepali — official language of Sikkim
  14. Oriya — official language of Orissa
  15. Punjabi — official language of Punjab and Chandigarh, second official language of Delhi and Haryana
  16. Sanskrit — language of Hinduism, required teaching in many schools
  17. Santali – language of the Santhal tribals of the Chota Nagpur Plateau (comprising the states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa and Chattisgarh)
  18. Sindhi – language of the Sindhi community

  19. Tamil — official language of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry
  20. Telugu — official language of Andhra Pradesh
  21. Urdu — official language of Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Delhi and Uttar Pradesh

Read more » Axistranslations
See more » http://www.axistranslations.com/translation-article/national-lanuages-of-india-list.html

How Pakistan stole an Aussie’s heart

By JOEL HILL

“Don’t go, comrade, they kill cricketers there!” This was the general reaction I received when I told people back home I was going to Pakistan.

They would also ask, “Why?”

I wasn’t entirely sure of the answer to that. All I knew was that when you get a chance to go somewhere that you otherwise would never be able to, you go.

There are some nutters that do it alone. They don’t speak the language and have this bizarre feeling of invulnerability. They come to Pakistan, hitchhike around in blissful ignorance of the possible dangers and almost always survive. I am envious of these people and definitely not one of them.

Luckily, I had a friend on the inside, Madeeha. She promised to show me the true side of Pakistan, and that is exactly what I saw from one entry point, Karachi all the way to the other, Khunjerab.

The warmth! The people are lovely, that’s just the way it is.

Nobody tried to rip me off, leer at me like I was an alien (well, there was some confusion initially) or generally appear threatening or nasty. People always wanted to say hello, offer us chai, have a photo taken and just chit chat.

Some would say, “Tell your friends back in Australia we are good people.” Which I have.

The pictures I took show breathtaking landscapes, glorious mountains and stunning lakes, but while my phone captured the vista, the people captured my heart.

Read more » DAWN
See more » http://www.dawn.com/news/1209973/

Four-year-old boy beheaded in human sacrifice in southern India

According to Indian media, a 35-year-old man abducted the little boy as he walked home from nursery and killed him in a ritual dedicated to the Hindu Goddess Kali

By Caroline Mortimer@cjmortimer

A four year-old-boy has been beheaded in a gruesome “human sacrifice” ritual in a rural village in southern India.

Indian media reports a 35-year-old man abducted the little boy as he was returning home from nursery in the remote Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh state.

The man, named as Tirumala Rao, is reported to have beheaded the child in a ritual to honour the Hindu Goddess Kali and he was alleged to be seeking “divine powers”, according the Times of India.

Mr Rao was discovered next to the little boy’s, named locally as Manu Sagar, body.

Read more » Independent
See more » http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/four-year-old-boy-beheaded-in-human-sacrifice-in-southern-india-a6678026.html