By Muhammad Haroon Bahlkani, Kashmore, Sindh
A Study Conducted in Low Literacy District Kashmore of Upper Sindh
Abstract – All parents want their children to learn. But the level of their desire and efforts vary because of different socio-cultural and economical factors. Parents’ educational level also influences their urge of making their children to learn. Therefore, the behavior and attitude of parents towards the education of their children varies accordingly. This study was conducted to identify the parents’ behavior towards the education of their children at secondary level.
The study was conducted in the low literacy rate area of kashmore sindh s. A previous study also helped to identify some background characteristics related to home and parents that had significant relationship with the achievement level of their children. The present study investigated the styles and behavior of parents they adopt for educating their children.
The data of the study was collected from 650 students. It was a survey study, therefore, questionnaire was considered appropriate research tool. The analysis of data depicted some specific behaviors of parents in educating their children. The study concluded that parents have adopted some attitudes that effect badly the educational attainment of students. Some from these are, they do gender discrimination, impose decisions about the educational matters on children, do not prefer tuitions system and do not response the call by school. It was suggested to understand the needs of students and educate parents through different programs about the behavior, attitudes and styles that can be in favor to upgrade the educational achievement of children in healthy atmosphere to increase literacy rate of the Upper Sindh District Kashmore.
Education is commonly referred as the process of learning and obtaining knowledge at school, in a form of formal education. However, the process of education does not only start when a child first attends school. Education begins at home. One does not only acquire knowledge from a teacher; one can learn and receive knowledge from a parent, family member and home environment too. Indeed, Parents represent a considerable role in child’s education. There are stronger evidences that cultural characteristics and parental attitudes effect the educational attainment of children at school level education.
If parents adopt good and effective behavior, attitudes and styles with their children at home, children make better progress in school. Moreover, Parental supportive styles and attitudes not only influence child’s attainment level at school but also provide better help to students in the learning process.
Through observations and researches, it has revealed that some parents know the effective skills related to helping styles that can help children in the field of education. They adopt good supportive styles and behavior to provide better help to children. Others adopt different attitudes and styles without having a sight about its positive or negative results. As a result, some children show good results, some show average and some show poor results at school. The question is what are significant cultural characteristics and behavior of parents that affect the educational attainment of children at school in positive sense. Keeping in view the significance of problem, it was decided to conduct a research on “Studying the behavior of Parents towards Education of their Children: A Study Conducted in Low Literacy Area of upper Sindh District of Kashmore”. Variables of interest in this study were to study the behavior of parents about gender discrimination, objective of teaching, polarization, children’s activities at home, parents’ school visit routine, child’s activities at home and parent’s encouraging styles.
Objectives of the Study
1. To study, the cultural characteristics of students studying in low literacy area of kashmore sindh.
2. To Study, the behavior/attitudes of parents that they commonly adopt with their children.
3. To point out the behavior, attitudes and styles of parents that can work as hinder for students in better learning process and getting good grades in exams.
4. To, provide help to parents to point out the attitudes that can benefit the educational achievement of children.
This study is significant because of following reasons
This study is helpful
1. To provide research based literature related to the culture of low literacy rate area of Kashmore Sindh, Pakistan
2. To provide information about the attitudes of parents that they adopt in real sense with/without having a sense about the effects of their attitudes.
3. For teachers of secondary schools to understand their role and duties (having a view about the culture of the student).
After reviewing the literature, a questionnaire was designed. Eighteen semi-closed questions were given in the questionnaire about personal information, different behavior, attitudes and styles of parents related to the education of their children. Then it was distributed to the students studying at secondary level in various secondary schools in kashmore. The District Kashmore was selected from low literacy rate area of Upper Sindh.
Keeping in view, the conveyance to collect data 10 schools and 650 students were selected from total Government funded schools of total (3) Tehsils of kashmore district r by following the simple random sampling.
After collection of data, the data was organized, tabulated and evaluated for interpretation of findings. Simple Percentage was calculated to analyze the data
Table: 1 Cultural Characteristics of kashmore
Sr. no. Variable Options Percentage
1 Mother Tongue
Balouchi 51%, sindhi 34%, Siraiki 15%
2.1 Educational Status of Parents
Parents are not Educated 64%
One Parent Is Educated 31%
Both parents are educated 5%
2.2 Educational Status of Father
Highly Educated (14-Above) 07%
Low Educated (10-12) 29%
2.3 Educational Status of Mother
Highly Educated (14-Above) 00%
Lower Educated 10 %
Middle Educated 2%
3 Families Structure
Joint Family System 75%
Independent Family System 25%
4 Family Sizes
Family Members: 5-8 27%
Family Members: 9-11 61%
Family Members: 12-15 12%
5 Living Areas
6 Father’s Occupation
Govt. / Private) Servants 10%
Low Level Workers 31%
7 Mother’s Activities
Household (99) %
Table above indicated the followings
1. Majority 51% of students belonged to balouchi speaking group, 34% belonged to sindhi speaking group and other 15% belonged to the saraiki speaking group.
1. Majority of Students (35%) belonged to the parents from whom at least one (mother or father) had metric level qualification. 65% belonged with parents who were totally uneducated.
2. Majority of students (64%) belonged to father who had uneducated, 29% belonged with those who were at least 10-12 years education and some (7%) belonged to those who were highly educated (graduation or above).
3. Majority of students (88%) belonged to the uneducated mothers.10% mothers were primary level education and mothers of 2% were educated (10-12 Years). No mother (00%) was highly educated (graduation or above).
3 Majority of students (75%) belonged to families who were living in joint family structure .other (25%) belonged to the group living in independent family structure.
4 Majority of students (69%) belonged with families having at least 9-11 persons, 27% belong with those having 5-8 persons and some (12%) belong with those having 12-15 persons.
6 Majority of students (62%) belonged with the families settled in rural areas. Other (38%) belonged with those living in urban areas.
7 Father’s occupation of majority of students (49%) was agriculture. Fathers of 20% were businesspersons. 10 % fathers were govt. or private sector servants. Father of 31% Fathers was doing low-level work (laborer, mullah, carpenter etc) for earning.
8 Majority of Students (99%) belonged to the household mothers. Others (1%) belonged with the working women.
Table: 2 the Styles and behavior of Parents about the Education of their Children
1 Objective of Parents for to earn Better in Future 60%
Educating Children to Learn For Good Ways of Life 40%
2 Segregation Parents Preferred Sons 80%
Parents Preferred Daughters 9 %
Did No Discrimination 11%
3 Polarization Parents Took Edu. Decisions 90%
Students Did Decisions Themselves 10%
Gave Rewards on Doing Well 10%
Praised Them 6%
4 Parents Encouraging Style
Did Nothing Special 60%
Contacted the School
On Call 15%
Without Call 85%
5 Parents School Visit Habit
Never Contacted the School 78%
Only Studied 16%
Helped Parents In House Hold Work 71%
6 Students Activities At Home
Did children in household work 50%
Worked for earning purpose 40%
Did nothing else studying at home.10%
Parents Themselves Guided 08%
7 Helping Style for Studies At Home
Did No Arrangement for tuition 90%
Arranged Tuitions 10%
Table above indicated the followings
1. Majority of (60%) parents sent their children to educational institutions “to enable them to earn better in future, where as to others (40%) were educating the children to learn for good ways of life.”
2. Most of parents (80%) did gender discrimination between children about the educational matters and they prefer boy, where as others (11%) did not do gender discrimination between their children son and daughter about the educational matters. only 9% parents perfered daughter in education matter.
3. About polarization, parents of 10% students allowed children to do the decisions (related to the education) themselves. On the other hand, 90% themselves (parents) did decisions about the educational matters of their children.
4. Majority of parents (84%) did nothing, where as 10% offered the rewards to children to encourage them to perform better in future too. 6% take just verbal praise to encourage their children.
5. Only 22% parents used to contact the school/ teachers. From those some (15%) used to contact the school on call others (85 %) used to contact without call.
6. 50% parents take help of school going children in household work. 10% did nothing else studying at home. 40% also worked for earning purpose.
7. Majority (90%) of parents do not arranged tuitions for their children development but 10% themselves helped the children to solve the problems related to education of children through arranging tuition.
The families are too much valuable for a teacher. “Family is used to
Describe a cultural value that includes three elements: an integrated network of privileges and obligations that function to support the total family system, the interest of the family as a group having precedence over the individual’s interests and sense of commitment to other family members.” (Debord & Atiles, 1999, P.). Families help a teacher to provide need based help to the learner. Having some, knowledge of the family culture of a learner can work as a base to get better results in teaching. Focusing on a particular individual without having idea about the families of learner cannot only waste the time and resources of a school and parents but also the energy of a teacher. As a result, the learner can be suffered and Parents and teachers can be disappointed.
By reviewing the literature it was concluded,
Map of Sindh Province showing the Bordering District Kashmore
The District Kashmore was created on 13-12-2004. It was carved out of Jacobabad district. It has three taluka’s namely Kashmore, Kandhkot and Tangwani. Kashmore is located at tri-junction point connecting three provinces and gate way to Punjab and Baluchistan provinces.
The geographical area of district is 640458 acres including 37 UCS’s, having population of 662462 souls. The over all literacy rate of district is 25% in which female literacy rate is 10%. There are 6 government hospitals and 1466 government schools in the districts.
There are three TMAs / Talukas namely Kandhkot, Kashmore & Tangwani. The U/C wise
Population of District Kashmore is as under.
Taluka Kandhkot: 238940
Taluka Kashmore: 319628
Taluka Tangwani: 231188
The total Population of District Kashmore: 789756
East: District Rajanpur (Punjab).
West: District Jacobabad & Shikarpur.
North: District Dera Bugti (Balochistan).
South: District Ghotki & Sukkur
1. Guddu Barrage.
2. Thermal Power Station, Guddu.
3. PPL Gas field Kandhkot
The following major tribes are living in District Kashmore
Mazari, Bijarani, Sundrani, Khosa, Domki, Bahalkani, Lashari, Channa, Malik, Hindu,Noonari,, Shaikh.
• National Highway
• Kandhkot to Sukkur
• Kandhkot to Jacobabad
• Kandhkot to Ubauro via Guddu Kandhkot to Dera Ghazi Khan
• Kandhkot to Sui via Kashmore
Seats of National & Provincial Assembly
Two National and Three Provincial Assembly seats.
Over All Literacy Rate
Livelihood Source in the District
Resource Available in the District
• Natural Gas & Agriculture
Occupations in District Kashmore.
The population residing in the rural areas is almost engaged in the agriculture. Big markets, host thousands of workers as daily wages, a good source to earn livelihood, sources of laboring is also quite sustainable in urban areas. So it could be said that to have a daily work in a city is easier than in rural areas. The standard of wage is also much better urban areas than in rural. From the density of population point of view, Kashmore is one of middle-class economic District. The green belt of Kashmore District with the ample production of wheat, rice, vegetable of all kinds, accepted to be the richest in agricultural in Sindh.
The initiatives of the District Government under the directives of Sadar Saleem Jan Khan Mazari District Nazim are underway to boast up the economic stability of District and create more vistas to bring prosperity in the life of common masses. Moreover the Federal Minister of Education Mir Hazzar Khan Bijrani also belongs from this backward district. It’s very hard for author to mention that the literacy rate of this bordering district is very poor and discriminatory toward female education.
Education Policy of District Kashmore
1. Elimination of Gender Discrimination at Primary Level (Phase-I) elementary
2. Closure of all branch Schools which will help in rehabilitating the main primary Schools and Cancellation of SEMIS Codes.
3. To abolish the posts of Supervisors /RPS /LCOs/ SPEs, who must revert back to the teaching Schools.
4. Equal Distribution of Responsibilities to male and female ADOEs.
5. Posting of Female Teachers is made nearest to their homes.
6. Priority will be given to female Teachers during appointments /Selection for promotion of gender equality.
7. Teachers are posted at schools where from they are drawing their salaries and banning all derailments.
8. Restructuring the policies of SMCs which are presently misused. The District
Government should have more Control and authority on SMCs Funds, would be
utilized for purchasing furniture, Uniform, Scientific and Laboratory equipments, Computers and provision of pure Drinking water facilities.
9. To offer School for Adoption through Public Private Partnership Scheme.
10. To encourage private Education Institutes NGOs and to allot SEMIS Codes to private Schools.
11. To introduce Musical classes and to bring Environmental Health and Hygiene awareness at every level. .
12. To encourage schools to participate in Cleanness Campaigns at one Quarterly.
13. Standardization of the Furniture in Schools.
14. Promotion of IT Education coupled English language Courses.
15. District Government Kashmore is in the Final stages with Pakistan Petroleum
Limited for establishing English Medium School at Kashmore which will have Co-
education and Project to be completed in three Stages that is Primary, elementary and O’ Levels.
16. Survey has also been conducted in terms of Age group admission and drop out in District Kashmore .
17. Buildings will constructed on those Schools which have SEMIS Codes (This will discourage ghost Schools and Otaques.)
The standardized furniture will be procured for all High/Higher Secondary schools of District Kashmore under SDSSP 2005-06 of amounting Rs.3.3 Million to facilitate the Boys & Girls under certain standardized method. For this tendering committee has been notified to check the quality
Various studies have reported differences in parenting styles”.
Therefore, it is valuable to analyze the characteristics of the parents to suggest better tips to parents and teachers for better education of their siblings. The dominating socio-cultural characteristics concluded by this study are large family size, illiteracy of most of women, low education level of male, low level of income of families, joint family structure, profession of agriculture and household women. Care from parents is a basic need of a child. This is necessary to help a child to gain the feeling of stability and harmony. Some times, parents neglect their children in some ways. This results bad effects on a child’s personality. Surfleet (2003, p.39) expressed “It is very important to the child’s whole development that his family relationship should be well adjusted. Lost of any parent can develop any aggressive behavior, resistance to authority, bad temper in feelings of inferiority, Jealously or hate in less clearly defined ways.” Luckily, this study revealed some positive and caring attitudes of parents for their children. Some attitudes are critical but they are not dominating. Some behavior and attitudes of parents adopted in the area like as parents’ objective for educating children to earn better livelihood to resolve the economic constraints of family, giving no any liberty to children to decide themselves about the educational matters, to involve children in house hold work also instead of insisting them to study and study all the time is critical because mostly these behaviors damage the personality of students and resist for better performance in exams. About the behavior, attitudes and styles of parents, it was found that students studying in schools have adopted different styles and attitudes. Most of parents are educating children to be able to earn better in future and some parents care to learn better ways of life instead of earning. It is not appreciating practice. Main goal of education is enable a person to become a good human being. Sahni (2007) describing the importance of education in society explains, “Learning subjects in school is not enough. One can learn history, math, science in school, and be “book-smart”. In addition, one can learn how to live life by knowing what to say when, acting a certain way in certain situations and be “street-smart”.
These two types of knowledge are extremely essential to be successful in life” Another salient finding of this study concluded that although illiteracy /low level education of parents is a significant feature of this area but parents are not too much touchy about the education of their children. Few of them remain worried about the performance of children at school also. Therefore, they arrange tuitions for children to provide maximum coaching in studies. Moreover, many parents do not contact the teachers at school to discuss the performance and problems of their children. Few of them contact school without any call. About those who are called by teachers, never contact school/teachers. In other words, they sent children to school but give no importance to the needs of children.
An admiring style of parents concluded by this study was that majority of parents
are unaware and take no interest in the performance of children at school. They for example, some give rewards to children on performing well but most do nothing special.
It should be kept in mind that parental role in child education is vital. To encourage children about work and to praise them for good tasks done by them has advantages. It can lead to good grades and test scores. A child needs mental relaxation to perform better. If parents offer reward to children on performing well, it can reinforce the children to work better in future too. Finally, students get motivation for future too. .”Some educationists are not in favor to offer rewards to students. They argue, “Offering rewards as incentives leads students to believe that they engaged in the rewarded behaviors only to earn the rewards. The students’ focus then is on the reward; not on the learning that has value in its own right (Wilson & Corpus, 2001, p.58) on the other hand various studies also have supported the idea to present rewards to children on performing well. As, a study finding out the effects of rewards on academic achievement of students identified “if parents offer rewards on performing well in exams and tests, students perform better in future too as compared to those who only praise the children or ignore them on performing well in exams”. (Akhter, 2006) .So, if students achieve some better, it is appreciating to celebrate the event. It can be a good style of parents to help them to be conscious and to try to perform better in future too. One more significant appreciating characteristic pointed out in this study was that parents mostly do discrimination between son and daughter. Some prefer daughters on sons and other consider son is better than daughter but they are few. This factor was about gender discrimination in society by parents as it is a feature of our society. In general, observation, male have upper hand on female in various matters of social life.
Sons are given preferences as compared to daughters in Pakistani society. Mahadevan (1992, p.24) reported, “Born into a social inhospitable environment, bringing up a girl is considered to be a burden and an expense in many ways. Education in the case of a girl child is considered to be an unnecessary expenditure and waste of time, energy and material resources” moreover “married sons are considered responsible for their parents in old age,” (
Infect, “some cultural factors are involved in the preference for sons especially.”
(Masood, 1998, p.120). Due to social factors, some attitudes of parents have been developed & practiced. In general, mothers usually hope for the best of their male children more as compared to female. Fathers also hope for male children to be good in future. A son can be helpful for him and his family in economic help. This behavior of parents can affect the both (females’ and males’) performance in education and finally it can have bad effects on the educational attainment of students. Kashmore is considered one from very backward areas of sindh and in this study; it was pointed out that majority of parents do discrimination between sons or daughters. They mostly prefer sons on daughters. Luckily, few did not do gender discrimination. They give equal importance to sons and daughters and provide equal attention to their siblings. Some behaviors as pointed out in this study were very critical. As mentioned above, it was revealed that parents mostly do not arrange tuitions for children. This shows non caring behavior of parents towards education of their children but on the other hand, some other studies have advocated that children, who get educational assistance from parents, perform better in school than the students who get educational assistance of the others on payment. Educated Parents should try to help their children in studies. This is necessary for good parenting also. Good parenting in the home not only includes providing the physical luxuries. It also includes “the provision of a secure and stable environment, intellectual stimulation, parent-child discussion, constructive social and educational values and high aspirations relating to personal fulfillments and good citizenship” ( Desforges & Abouchaar,2003,P.433). “Parental involvement in their children’s learning positively affects the child’s academic performance” (Fan & Chen, 2001). Parental help in learning process helps “leading to higher academic achievement, greater cognitive competence, greater problem-solving skills, greater school enjoyment, better school attendance and fewer behavioral problems at school (Melhuish, Sylva, Sammons, 2001). Infect “Parents’ involvement in their child’s literacy practices is a more powerful force than other family background variables, such as social class, family size and level of parental education (Flouri & Buchanan, 2004).Parental involvement has the greatest effect at secondary and higher secondary level education. Feinstein and Symons (1999) also found that “parental interest in their child’s education was the single most powerful predictor of achievement at age 16”. Desforges & Boucher( 2003) also argued “its importance to children’s educational and literacy outcomes continues into the teenage and even adult years” It should be evaluated, why parents arrange tuitions for children. It is a reality in kashmore, lack of parental involvement in the coaching of children at secondary level is because of the illiteracy / low level of education of parents and high expectations of parents for better achievement of children. Some times educated parents also send their children to tuition centers because of lack of time to guide the children. Sometimes keeping in mind that education of child should be of proper and good. The teachers at schools can solve problem of children of uneducated/low educated parents only by giving extra help in schools. On the other hand, educated parents should try to spare time for children. Their self-help and care can benefit the child in achievement. The role of teacher in government funded school also needs improvement and demands honesty in fulfilling the duties at this situation. They should guide students in such a way that parents feel no need to send their children to tuition centers. This cannot only be the economic help of parents but also a favor to a child for to be able to perform better in school and final exams arranged by other examining body.
A factor investigated by this study was about school visit routine. This study supported that just only few parents contact school without call by teaches / school. Some contact on call and others never contact the teachers or schools. In general, observation and discussions it is advocated that parents should have strong contact with teachers.” Desforges & Abouchaar (2003, P.433) also reported “contact with the school, do not have as much impact. Differences between parents are associated with parental perceptions of their role, and their levels of confidence in fulfilling it”.
Another silent point, pointed out by this study was, Most of students not only study but also help parents for earning purpose. Small groups also work for in house hold work purpose so; they do some activity along with studying also. This badly affects the performance of children in school too. It is a reality that a child from all aspects is valuable for parents. Parents also need the help of students in some situations. In a previous study (Akhter, 2006, p) it was concluded, “Children who help parents perform better in exams than those who only study at home. Those who also work for wages along with studding perform lower than all.” Although it is because of that a person, doing some job along with study cannot give proper time to the studies. As a result, these students get lower marks in exams. Nevertheless, in a poor family, where parents cannot educate children because of poverty and lack of resources, they suppose children to do work to earn some thing. At this situation, no person can help these students. Only govt. can provide proper financial help to poor students and poor families.
1. Kashmore is a multicultural and poor literacy rate area. Literacy rate of Male is up as compared to literacy rate of female. On the other hand, Level of female education is also lower as compared to male (between educated persons in this area).
2. Mostly women are engaged in household work having joint family structure and large family sizes are other salient features of the culture of kashmore.
3. Parents do gender discrimination about education of their children. Most of parents prefer sons on daughters.
4. Parents mostly avoid contacting to school / teachers. Between those who contact the school/teachers mostly, contact without any call.
5. Parents are not satisfied with help and care provided by teachers in govt. schools. Parents are mostly uneducated. They cannot guide children about studies. They send children to tuition centers.
6. Most of children studding in govt. schools belong to lower and middle class. Their parents mostly not offer rewards to children on performing well in tests and exams. However, most of parents praise children on getting good marks in tests and exams.
7. Parents demand students to do jobs for earning along the studies and some help them in house hold work. .
8. Many parents are illiterate. With a little difference, more parents allow children to decide about the educational matters. Others try to impose decisions about the educational matters on children.
1 Govt. should give more importance to improve literacy rate in low literacy rate area of Kashmore District of Sindh.
2 Govt. of sindh and other agencies should run Literacy campaigns about the adult literacy in low literacy rate area of the sindh.
3 Media should play effective role to educate the parents about those attitudes that can effect positively the educational achievement of children.
4 Govt. Schools should arrange teacher parent meetings to inform them about the progress of their children.
5 Parents should visit the school if school calls them. To ignore the call of school or teacher is not good.
6 Teachers should try to educate parents about the styles that can be effective for children during teacher parent meeting.
7 Teachers of govt. schools need to play effective and honest role to solve the educational problems of students at school.
8 Like many private sector schools, govt. schools should also provide extra help to weak students in studies after school timings.
9 Parents should give liberty to children to decide about themselves. To impose decisions on children specially related to education can be dangerous for students in future.
10 Govt. should provide free education and scholarships to poor students.
11 Son and daughter are creation of the nature. Parents should not do gender discrimination between children. Education is also necessary for female to meet new challenges of present and future.
12. Female literacy even non formal education should be encouraged to promote gender friendly atmosphere in the district.
13. Gender friendly decisions through local government should be initiated to raise the literacy ratio of female in the district.
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