The Silk route & the ancient Indus Valley

By Aftab Kazi, PhD

Silk was among the items exported from the ancient Indus Valley emporiums to Mesopotamian city-states approximately 4000 years ago through both land and sea-borne silk-routes. Historically China has maintained cross-continental trade through the port cities of the Indus Basin River state, i.e. Sindh, Ind, Hind, Al-Hind respectively, the land areas that are now called Pakistan. Most recent early medieval example is that of the Kushan Empire (included land areas comprising modern Central Asia, Pakistan with a thin inland incursion into Bharat up to Mathura) which also had an excellent relationship with China. Both empires traded silk, spices, malmal (cotton cloth made in Sindh), indigo, etc all the way to Roman Empire through the Indus port city of Barbarikon (ruins of Barbarikon are likely to be that of Bhambhore located approximately 50 klometers from modern Karachi. This was the sea-borne silk-route link. Suez Canal did not exist then.

Ships sailed from Barbarikon via the coast of modern Oman and Arabia, entered Red Sea, from where they used the delta canals of River Niles to enter Mediterranean, hence traveled to Greece and Rome. There were two routes to sail. One for winter and the other for summer. I have cited this sea-borne Silk-route in my chapter on Pakistan in SF Starr (ed.) New Silk Roads:…, (Washington, DC: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute, Johns Hopkins University, 2007). Earliest records of ancient Silk-routes are available in the travel accounts of Sindhbad, an inhabitant of Sindh (modern Pakistan) under the title of “Sindhbad’s travels”, also spelled as “Sindbad”. Although somewhat fictionalized, this book is the most earliest treatise available on ancient Silk Roads. This book was translated from ancient Sindhi to Persian in medieval times and has been further translated into several modern languages including the English language…

Source – http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/inside/staff/staff_ web/aftab_kazi.htm

http://www.aftabkazi.com

DIET CHART

AN IMPORTANT INFO ABOUT DIET

apples

Protects your heart

prevents constipation

Blocks diarrhea

Improves lung capacity

Cushions joints

apricots

Combats cancer

Controls blood pressure

Saves your eyesight

Shields against Alzheimer’s

Slows aging process

artichokes

Aids digestion

Lowers cholesterol

Protects your heart

Stabilizes blood sugar

Guards against liver disease

avocados

Battles diabetes

Lowers cholesterol

Helps stops strokes

Controls blood pressure

Smoothes skin

bananas

Protects your heart

Quiets a cough

Strengthens bones

Controls blood pressure

Blocks diarrhea

beans

Prevents constipation

Helps hemorrhoids

Lowers cholesterol

Combats cancer

Stabilizes blood sugar

beets

Controls blood pressure

Combats cancer

Strengthens bones

Protects your heart

Aids weight loss

blueberries

Combats cancer

Protects your heart

Stabilizes blood sugar

Boosts memory

Prevents constipation

broccoli

Strengthens bones

Saves eyesight

Combats cancer

Protects your heart

Controls blood pressure

cabbage

Combats cancer

Prevents constipation

Promotes weight loss

Protects your heart

Helps hemorrhoids

cantaloupe

Saves eyesight

Controls blood pressure

Lowers cholesterol

Combats cancer

Supports immune system

carrots

Saves eyesight

Protects your heart

Prevents constipation

Combats cancer

Promotes weight loss

cauliflower

Protects against Prostate Cancer

Combats Breast Cancer

Strengthens bones

Banishes bruises

Guards against heart disease

cherries

Protects your heart

Combats Cancer

Ends insomnia

Slows aging process

Shields against Alzheimer’s

chestnuts

Promotes weight loss

Protects your heart

Lowers cholesterol

Combats Cancer

Controls blood pressure

chili peppers

Aids digestion

Soothes sore throat

Clears sinuses

Combats Cancer

Boosts immune system

figs

Promotes weight loss

Helps stops strokes

Lowers cholesterol

Combats Cancer

Controls blood pressure

fish

Protects your heart

Boosts memory

Protects your heart

Combats Cancer

Supports immune system

flax

Aids digestion

Battles diabetes

Protects your heart

Improves mental health

Boosts immune system

garlic

Lowers cholesterol

Controls blood pressure

Combats cancer

kills bacteria

Fights fungus

grapefruit

Protects against heart attacks

Promotes Weight loss

Helps stops strokes

Combats Prostate Cancer

Lowers cholesterol

grapes

saves eyesight

Conquers kidney stones

Combats cancer

Enhances blood flow

Protects your heart

green tea

Combats cancer

Protects your heart

Helps stops strokes

Promotes Weight loss

Kills bacteria

honey

Heals wounds

Aids digestion

Guards against ulcers

Increases energy

Fights allergies

lemons

Combats cancer

Protects your heart

Controls blood pressure

Smoothes skin

Stops scurvy

limes

Combats cancer

Protects your heart

Controls blood pressure

Smoothes skin

Stops scurvy

mangoes

Combats cancer

Boosts memory

Regulates thyroid

aids digestion

Shields against Alzheimer’s

mushrooms

Controls blood pressure

Lowers cholesterol

Kills bacteria

Combats cancer

Strengthens bones

oats

Lowers cholesterol

Combats cancer

Battles diabetes

prevents constipation

Smoothes skin

olive oil

Protects your heart

Promotes Weight loss

Combats cancer

Battles diabetes

Smoothes skin

onions

Reduce risk of heart attack

Combats cancer

Kills bacteria

Lowers cholesterol

Fights fungus

oranges

Supports immune systems

Combats cancer

Protects your heart

Straightens respiration


peaches

prevents constipation

Combats cancer

Helps stops strokes

aids digestion

Helps hemorrhoids

peanuts

Protects against heart disease

Promotes Weight loss

Combats Prostate Cancer

Lowers cholesterol

Aggravates
diverticulitis

pineapple

Strengthens bones

Relieves colds

Aids digestion

Dissolves warts

Blocks diarrhea

prunes

Slows aging process

prevents constipation

boosts memory

Lowers cholesterol

Protects against heart disease

rice

Protects your heart

Battles diabetes

Conquers kidney stones

Combats cancer

Helps stops strokes

strawberries

Combats cancer

Protects your heart

boosts memory

Calms stress


sweet potatoes

Saves your eyesight

Lifts mood

Combats cancer

Strengthens bones


tomatoes

Protects prostate

Combats cancer

Lowers cholesterol

Protects your heart


walnuts

Lowers cholesterol

Combats cancer

boosts memory

Lifts mood

Protects against heart disease

water

Promotes Weight loss

Combats cancer

Conquers kidney stones

Smoothes skin


watermelon

Protects prostate

Promotes Weight loss

Lowers cholesterol

Helps stops strokes

Controls blood pressure

wheat germ

Combats Colon Cancer

prevents constipation

Lowers cholesterol

Helps stops strokes

improves digestion

U.S. Canada relationships- Obama’s visit to Canada

OTTAWA- “I love this country (Canada). We could not have a better friend and ally.” Barack Obama, U.S. President said in Canada.

Geography has made us neighbours. History has made us friends. Economic has made us partners. And necessity has made us allies. Those whom nature hath so joined together, let no man put asunder.” -John F. Kennedy

Rally in Toronto Against Taliban Atrocities

TORONTO: This Sunday, the Canadian Pashtun community staged protests the Taliban’s ongoing and brutal oppression of Pashtun people in Northwestern Pakistan. Answering the call of the Pashtun Peace Committee for a “first-ever anti-Taliban rally in Canada.” Says rally spokesman Inayat Khan Kakar:

Continue reading Rally in Toronto Against Taliban Atrocities