Meet the ‘new’ Asif Zardari

By Karan Thapar

NEW DELHI- Most people, I believe, grow to fill the responsibility placed on them. Promotions are, therefore, an act of faith. But that said and done I’m flabbergasted by the change in Asif Zardari. He’s literally become a different person.

The Asif I remember was a jovial tease, informal, chatty, fond of the good life and determined not to be boring or even serious. We first met the night after his wedding. “Benazir has told me all about you,” he said with mock gravity. “I’m on my best behaviour!” He then spent the evening pulling my leg and, frequently, his wife’s too. Weeks after Benazir first became prime minister we were together on her special flight from Islamabad to Karachi. It was an aged propeller plane which flew at a sedate speed. Sitting in the prime ministerial drawing room at the front, Asif looked at his watch. We’d been traveling for nearly two hours. “If you’d stuck to PIA not only would you have arrived but you’d be in the hotel pool by now!” I protested I wasn’t in a hurry. “Yeah? Let’s see if you return with us!” I didn’t. The Asif I meet two weeks ago was very different. Now the adjectives I would use are measured, emollient and deliberately self-effacing. Of course, he’s still charming, chatty and can’t resist teasing but there’s new gravitas, a consciousness of responsibility and a convincing sense of wisdom. Consider two examples. I pointed out that Nawaz Sharif would keep the PPP-led government unstable. Benazir’s reply would have been defensive. Asif chose to turn my question on its head. “And I welcome that,” he said. “I need people to keep me in check.”

“You need to be kept in check?” I asked, puzzled. “Power is a tricky thing,” he responded. “What better can I ask for than my own ally should check me?”

It was a winning answer but also utterly unexpected. How many politicians on the brink of power welcome the prospect of being kept uncertain and unstable? Even if he didn’t mean it, it was the perfect thing to say. However, it wasn’t just fluent cleverness that made Asif so engagingly different. He also showed vision and courage. When I asked about Kashmir and the role it has played separating. India and Pakistan, Asif, in a simple heartfelt reply, reversed Pakistan’s stand.

Let’s put Kashmir aside for a wiser generation to sort out, he said. Let’s not be hostage to the UN resolutions, he added. Let’s get on with the rest of the relationship and once we’ve learnt live and love each other then tackle Kashmir. Stunned, I made Asif repeat this three times. Not once did he use the opportunity to resile. Each time he re-affirmed what he’d said.

Finally, I asked: “Can you carry your countrymen? Can you handle the backlash this would provoke?”

Asif’s reply was simple. There were no flourishes or braggadocio. “That’s the test of leadership,” and he left it at that.

I can’t predict what sort of government the PPP under Asif Zardari will give Pakistan. I can’t even state Asif won’t change this position. Politicians often do and Asif has faced flak from the Jamaat at home and the Hurriayat in Kashmir. But I do know that Asif did not get carried away. This was not indiscretion or impetuousness. He meant what he said and, what’s more, he meant to say it.

In fact, when I asked if Dr. Manmohan Singh chooses to invite the new PM what the response would be, Asif said not only would the prime minister come but so too Nawaz Sharif, Asfandyar Wali Khan, Fazlur Rehman, Altaf Hussain and Asif Himself. A new Pakistan would seek to be friend India.

I’m therefore full of hope. And whilst I accept hope can easily be dashed, I would say there’s need to encourage this one. That’s the challenge facing our government. How do we assist Asif Zardari without embarrassing or undermining him?

Courtesy: Hindustan Times

6 thoughts on “Meet the ‘new’ Asif Zardari”

  1. Rilli (Quilt)
    Ancient Handicraft of Sindh

    Asif Raza Morio

    Handicrafts sort of arty and creative works have been manifestation of ancient and modern ceremonial practices of any region and the populations engaged in such handiworks can be counted as communal and enlightened possessor of such hierarchies. Such artisans have been appreciated by rank and file among sophisticated societies. Splendid region of Sindh has nourished thousands such stunning skills and crafts in her humble loam. Among such handy arts which have been historically & traditionally rooted into fertilized society of Sindh is Rilli (the quilt) a coverlet made of cloth.
    Rilli is a cloth sheet made up with different colorful pieces of fabrics and can be used as bedspread. Its snobbery is that Rilli can be used to reduce the temperature in hot season whereas during summer it works to warm the wrapper. Rillies made in Sindh are thickly double layered than modern fancy bed sheets while are thinner than quilt. Amazing fact about Rilly is that since its evolutionary dawn these have been formed into human hands.

    Birth place of Rilli

    A question has constantly been asked from historians, artisans and Rilli makers that what is the native region of Rilli? For a while this query formulate the man all at sea since thumbs are down regarding that among historical scripts, books or commandments therefore proper answer has not been given in this connection but in my view point this subject is not much knotty as has been well thought-out by all. Nevertheless we don’t have any information about the indigenous place of Rilli but we do know about parental constituency of it.
    It’s established truth by history that among three majestic civilizations of the world viz: Sumerian civilization of Mesopotamia, Egyptian civilization of Nile valley and Indus valley civilization, only from the ruins of Mohenjodaro the city of Indus valley civilization pieces of cloth/fabric material, knitting machines and dyeing places has been founded. Imports of cloth from Sindh have also been verified by ancient Sumerian and Egyptian scripts.
    Whole of the Rilli has been assembled by different pieces of new and old clothes while cutting in particular form and again stitch all parts in a sequence while it developed into the outward appearance of a Rilli. If all chronological sciences approved the origin of cloth is Sindh than the idea grew to be sure that not only handy craft of Rilli has also taken its beginning into society of this terra firma but needles and very first suture of needle must have been stitched by Sindhi sewer. Innumerable kinds of textile shown on various statues founded from Mohenjo daro demonstrate the dying shops must have been here there fore historians called this metropolis as “city of brightly colored dresses”.
    Although for the period of five thousand years cloth category of objects could not live to tell the tale into brackish soil in the region of Mohenjo daro but excavators founded many golden, silvery, earthen and ceramic pots covering and wrapper with superior feature of fabric which with by touching had turned into ashes. Indian Central Cotton Inquiry Committee in 1929 observed the ashes of that stuff and testified in the report that “This cloth is made of best kind of cotton and Indus knitters were superlative at their work and they had fashioned numerous techniques of cloth weaving””. Residents of Mohenjodaro have been used fiber of different types and colors. The excavators founded fishing hook wrapped with black colored thread. With such undeniable facts research world believe that “Sindh has been ostentatious manufacturer of cotton commodities in ancient world”.
    This actuality is also distinguished that cotton has been called “Sindhu” in Sanskrit language while same was the name for cotton in primordial Sumerian scripts. In olden Greek scripts “Sindhoon or Sindhin” has been written for cotton and in Arabic lingo and in holy Bible is written “Satin”. These all words been used for cotton in ancient languages belongs to the family of the word Sindh which bear witness that along with those regions not only the cloth of Sindh has been sent around those but they must not have technique of weaving or knitting cloths. For that reason their dictionaries were blank with the word could be used for cloth/fiber/yarn therefore they put the name of cloth imported from this region as Sindh which according to accents their languages and with the passage of time corrupted the pronunciations.
    The proofs for the assets like Quilt, Blanket, Ajrak and other such type of cloth expanses and bed sheets customary expected among Mohenjo daro residents can not be denied while watching carefully the things founded from the ruins of this city. Such as the statue of King Priest has wrapped the Ajrak type of textile piece which surely belongs to family of Quilt or blanket which proves that residents of this constituency in olden times used Quilt type of textile sheets as body cover. Keeping this fact in mind it will not be out of point they must use such sheets but thicker one as bedspread or coverlet which might be assembled by sewing different pieces of cloth in particular shape which must be evolutionary appearance of the quilt (Rilli).

    Mohenjo Daro

    The earliest imprints of human activities in Sindh go back to the Paleolithic age, roughly between/before 400,000 and 200,000 B.C. Stone implements and cave paintings from this period have been discovered in many parts of the Sindh. Evidence of domestication of animals, the adoption of agriculture, permanent village settlements, and wheel-turned pottery dating from the middle of the sixth millennium B.C. has been found from many parts of Sindh.
    The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BC and spread as far south as the Arabian Sea coast of India in Gujarat, as far west as the Iranian border, with an outpost in Bactria. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Mohenjo-Daro, Harrapa, Jhookar jo daro, lakhain jo daro etc: Among those all cities of Indus Mohenjo-daro ruins was the major centre of this civilizations which at its peak have had a population of over five million. The buildings of the city were particularly advanced, with structures constructed of same-sized sun dried bricks of baked mud and burned wood. Well-defined structures of old drains were discovered along with certain old artifacts during the digging. In all, these homes in city of Mohenjo-Daro daro were designed for privacy, introspection, family life, and for insulation from the outside bustle of the city streets. The overall impression is that Mohenjo-Daro was inhabited mainly by artisans and traders who collectively composed a large and successful middle-class society.

    Fabric Material Founded from Mohenjo daro

    History has various proofs to believe the Textile, Industry, Technical/printed Textile, Dyes & Chemicals, Machinery, Fashion, Apparel Technology, Retail, Leather, Footwear, beads, weights & measurement, Jewelry and General technologies rooted into soil of Sindhi centuries back. Indus Valley civilization thought to have mastered the art of making cotton fabrics as early as 3000 BC where the Cotton was spun, woven, and dyed for clothing. Block printing of fabric by hand is an art practiced by Sindhi artisans for the enjoyment of owners of those fabrics throughout the world, perhaps therefore historians called Mohenjo daro as “city of brightly colored dresses”. The thin bronze needles of different sizes founded from Mohenjo Daro are believed to have meant for embroidery, sewing, needlework, stitching, striping, edging, needlecraft needlepoint on cloth which can be traced to ancient roots in the Sindh because the world’s earliest known woven cotton cloth was found at 5000 year old Mohenjo daro site in Sindh where cotton cultivation is still a major farming practice. As the cotton trade was very important in the Indus Valley so perhaps hand woven fabrics became the leading industry and export for Mohenjodaro inhabitants. It was second only to the farming that thrived around Mohenjo-Daro.
    The most frequents motifs were fruits, geometrical designs, crossing lines, boats and birds used in Sindhi fabrics shown in terracotta figurines, pottery and other things. Inspiration comes from the observation of the exuberant vegetation and fauna in Sindh. For instance grenada is a very common motif in chintz: grenada is a symbolic fruit meaning prosperity and wealth. Chintz from Persia use often different motifs: Tigers, lions and eagles (symbol of strength and power), camels, peacock (symbol of wealth), doves (symbol of peace), rats and goats. Many Sindhi textile designs influenced other civilizations.
    The pieces of the cloth founded from Mohenjodaro have been undertaken to examination by Indian Central Cotton Inquiry Committee who said in their report that “This cloth is made of best kind of cotton and Indus knitters were superlative at their work and they had fashioned numerous techniques of cloth weaving””. Historian has many other undeniable proofs about this fact that cotton was first grown and been used by Mohenjodaro inhabitants such as that “Avara’s seal, a horned bull founded from Mohenjo daro looked very fine resting against his colorful cotton robe” of the bust of a king priest excavated from this city shows him draped over one shoulder in a piece of cloth. It is decorated with a trefoil pattern (like a three leafed clover) interspersed with small circles, the interiors of which are filled with a red pigment. The same trefoil pattern has been discovered in cities of Sumerian civilization whereas on the royal couch of Tutankhamen was also inscribed (of the ancient Pharaohs). The trefoil is a symbol of three sun-disks amalgamated together to symbolize the harmony of the gods of the Sun, water and earth.
    Not only through ancient world but it is also confirmed that before 1000 AD: India and China trade fabrics. Around 1300 AD: Chou Ta-kuan, the Chinese observer of life at the Khmer capital of Angkor wrote that “preference was given to the Indian weaving for its skill and delicacy.” 1550 AD: Indian printed cotton fabrics were sold to Japan by Portuguese. The Aztec civilization used naturally colored brown cotton as a principal form of payment. Greek and Roman civilizations used cotton for awnings and sails as well as clothing. Australia and Egypt produce the best quality cotton in the world but later on Sindhis.

    Species of Cotton

    There are 43 species of cotton among which 37 cotton species are from the old world viz: Asia, Africa and Australia whereas six from the new world viz: North and South America, Hawaii and the Galapagos Islands. Four cotton species have been domesticated around the world among which Gossypium herbaceum was cultivated by the Indus Valley civilization in South Asia, Gossypium hirsutum by the Maya civilization in Central America, Gossypium barbadense by the Inca civilization in South America and fourth Gossypium aboreum was disciplined by the Egyptian civilization in North Africa.

    Process of Block printing

    The process of block printing takes time, team work and, especially, skill. The three main tools of a block printed fabric are the wooden blocks, the fabric and the dye. It can take five carvers up to three days to create an intricate design in a block of teak for use as a printing block. The printers may use up to 30 blocks to complete a design. Separate blocks are required for each of the colors used in a design and it is not unusual to have four or five colors in a professional design. It can take twenty people, each doing a separate task, up to eight hours to prepare a single block printed garment. With all this, the results can only be unique and it seems this process of block printing has been used for centuries and is still in vogue.
    The process of block printing begins with the wooden blocks. Wood carvers cut designs into blocks of different shapes and sizes. The top of the block has a handle for the printers to grasp. Each block has two or three cylindrical holes through it to permit the passage of air and to allow excess dye to squeeze out. There are also various points carved into to block which the printers use as placement indicators as they pick the block up and move it to the next patch of fabric. Each block is soaked in oil for one and one half to two weeks to soften the wood. The next step in the process is the arrangement of the fabric. Workers stretch 24 layers of jute taut over a long rectangular table. The jute serves as a pad to provide resiliency to the printing surface. The workers secure the fabric to the jute pad with pins, keeping it tightly in place.

    When the printers are ready to do the printing, they select from three approaches. In the first method, called discharge printing, the printer dyes the fabric first. Then the printer chemically removes the dye from the portions of the cloth which will take the design. The bleached sections are treated, and then dye is reapplied to create the block print design. In the second method, also known as direct block printing, the cloth is bleached, and then dyed whole. The background color remains as the printer proceeds to print designs onto the dyed fabric using the wooden blocks. Finally, in resist printing, the block is used, not to apply dye, but rather to apply an impermeable resist, which can be made of clay, resin or wax. When the cloth is dyed, the portions covered by the resist do not take the dye. The resist is removed and the design has been created in reverse.

    Printing is done from left to right. When the printer is using the discharge or direct block print methods, the printer dips the block into the dye then presses it onto the fabric. The printer slams the back of the block hard with the fist to create a clear impression. Then the printer moves the block to the next portion of fabric to be dyed, using points on the block to serve as a guide for the placement of the block. As they work, the printers pull a wooden cart bearing their blocks along with them. The wooden blocks can be interchanged from one piece of fabric to another, creating different patterns. Custom designs and different colors can be used from one fabric to another, creating still more individual work.
    Each color of a design is done by a different printer, coming behind the one before and repeating the process. The process requires teamwork, as each subsequent printer must place the block accurately to create a beautiful, whole pattern. Once the pattern is finished on the whole length of fabric, the piece is treated to fix the dyes. First, the fabric is dried in the sun. Once dried, the fabric is rolled in newspapers and steamed in special boilers. After steaming, the fabric is washed, dried in the sun again, and ironed. Each of these steps contributes to fixing the pigment and making the colors rich and vibrant.

    Dyeing and its process

    Dyeing is the method of imparting colors to textile stuff in loose fiber (yarn) a long incessant length of interlocked fibers, appropriate to textile, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, needlework and rope making production. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Dye can usually be described as a colored material that has a similarity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is commonly applied in an aqueous solution, and may necessitate a caustic to develop the fastness of the dye on the fiber
    It is provide as true by historians that from thousands of years dyeing has been used by human being for them selves to decorate clothing, a wide variety of material that cover the human body. Volumes of anthropology, history and archaeology reveals that very first use of cloth occurred in Indus Valley civilizations where traces and pieces of cloths have been founded while excavation of Mohenjodaro.
    The most important resource is nature which in the broadest sense is comparable to the natural, physical, or material world. “Nature” refers to the phenomenon of the physical world and also to life in general. As the dyes being took out from animals a major group of mostly multicultural, eukaryotic organisms of Animalia or Metazoa kingdom. Their body plan ultimately became fixed as they develop, although some undertaking of metamorphosis later on in their life.
    There are many forms of yarn dyeing. Common forms are: at package form and at hanks form. Cotton yarns are mostly dyed at package form, and acrylic or wool yarn are dyed at hank form. In continuous filament industry, polyester or polyamide yarns are always dyed at package form, viscose rayon yarns are partly dyed at hank form because of technology.
    Early evidences of dyeing came from Sindh bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal, where a piece of cotton dyed with a vegetable dye has been recovered from Mohenjo-Daro an archaeological site of 3rd millennium BC, where the form of dye used was madder. Mohenjo-daro was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization of south Asia situated in the province of Sind, Pakistan. Built around 2600 BCE, the city was one of the early urban settlements in the world, existing at the same time as the civilizations of ancient Egypt,Rubia is a genus of the madder family Rubiaceae, which contains about 60 species of perennial scrambling or climbing herbs and sub-shrubs native to the Old World, temperate Asia, Africa, and America.

    Dying in Mohenjodaro

    Dyeing cotton fabrics is an ancient Sindhi art and the technique of dyeing cotton fabric and the patterns are traditional which has been used fabric trade which goes back to the Phoenicians who are believed to be the first foreign merchants to come here and what attracted them most were Sindhi cotton fabrics.
    This proves that cotton cultivation has begun in subcontinent, but it spread over a wide geographical region. From early times this silk was regarded as a sumptuous fabric, while cotton played a more utilitarian role in Indus societies. The major problem with silk is that it requires delicate handling during the process of reeling so as to get a uniform thickness. With cotton the problem involves bonding the dye to the fiber. To absorb the dye, cotton fiber has to be treated with a variety of substances, so that the desired color ingredients can penetrate the fiber and become permanently insoluble.
    Mordanting techniques Treatment of a fabric before it is dyed is known as mordanting and Sindhi mastery over this process gave Sindhees finished products dominance in the trade. Some of the major mordanting centers in subcontinent were in Mohenjo daro, Gujarat and at Masulipatnam, Kalahasti, Pulicat and the Tanjore region on the Coromandel Coast. At these centers Indian artisans developed and perfected various techniques of dyeing decorative patterns on cotton using vegetable colors.
    Basic techniques for mordanting cotton varied only in that in Mohenjodaro were on the Coromandel Coast the transfer technique and the brushes or pens were preferred. After examining the designs of fabrics and shops research understand that each market had its own layout, motifs and color and these had to be adhered to rigidly in order to ensure successful sale. Sindhi cottons were sold in all ancient known Gulf ports and regions while prime outlets for it were Egyptians, Mesopotamian, Mayan and Chinese regions.
    The technique incorporates patterns on fabrics through dyes and not through the loom. Ochre is a color that cotton takes on easily, but for other colors to be absorbed the fabric has to undergo mordanting as the chemical reactions that follow would allow cotton fibers to absorb the desired hue. A fragment of mordant-dyed cotton fiber founded in Mohenjo daro is proof of the antiquity of the process.
    Sindhi women, the creators of Rilli
    Sindhi women by manufacturing different domestic merchandise for their daily use has been shouldering economically with male members of their family. Finishing the household works they produce a variety of handy crafts among which the Quilt (Rilli) has an imperative role in Sindhi Society since centuries. These quilt makers labor women have neither been education from any technical colleges nor trained from other institutions but they have been qualified such crafts by elder women of their families into whose finger tips, hands and minds these expertise have been continue to exist. Anthropology and sociology told us about such cultural and traditional dexterities knew the ability of survival in global societies.
    Rilli is a primeval Sindhi skillfulness of recycling the process of old and useless pieces of cloth which has also a significant position into modern Sindhi society which testified the expertise of its creators. Finishing point these quilts overtake from many courses of action of endurance which proclaims the patience, soberness, skill, hard work of Sindhi women along with her declaration of love and possession with her cultural heritage. Sewing the quilt is like hostility to the eyes thus the Rilli makers due to shortage of provisions of appropriate conveniences in this association has been obliterating their eye sight. Unluckily in this cyber age the largest part of rural areas Sindh does not have electricity for that reason manufacturers of this craftsmanship which (generally women) carry out this insightful work of quilt sewing in lightless rooms of their shadowy homes.
    There are more than hindered kinds, patterns, samples, classes, types and verities of Rillies (quilts) which have been made by Sindhi women. Sindhi women in this link is praiseworthy that after winding household work up they don’t desecrate their leisure time in worthless thoughts and spitefulness rather they sitting on any central courtyard or underneath a thick tree blissfully stitch the quilts. In this way their moral, psychological, financial and economical situation improved but their honesty, reticence and importance also enhanced. To save from the harm the Rillies has been stitched in other cloth sheets which are called “A bunch of Quilts” in which ten to twenty quilts has been set aside. To maintain quits in that bunch in a particular order is an exceptional cleverness without knowing which quilt creator Sindhi women can not be standard as gifted.
    If due sponsorship has been given to the manual labor of Sindhi women on personal and national level than the quilt making along with other handiwork skills of Sindh can advance speedy because such type of thousand handicrafts are existing into length and breadth of this region. It will not be out of mark to say in panorama of manual craft that from prospect of skill and expertise every home of Sindh is a training institution and each woman an expert.
    Striking quilts made by Sindhi women has been given to friends, guests, relatives and brethren on meticulous occasions such as marriages and other ceremonies like wise. Ruling since centuries on hook and corner of rural economics of Sindhi society the quilt has now become legendary amongst global communities. Where is the question of its prominence around its birth place if sufficient to say that there will narrowly be any house in the region of Sindh without ten to fifty quilts because this is such uninterrupted ingredient of Sindhi culture and civilization to which mist of long period and cruel hands of modernity seem failure to separate both.

    1. A nice piece of research by Asif Raza Morio and very interesting information has been summed up by the author concerning the archaeological, cultural, historical and historical aspects of ancient Sindh which has been hidden from our new generations. Sindhi writers must have to follow Mr. Morio in this connection as we can introduce our culture among global communities.

      1. This article by Asif Raza morio contain the sum up of centuries concerned a valuable handicraft of Indus valley civilization. Nebraska university of America has established a QUILT STUDY CENTER. We should have not only own our legacies but should also have to work on cultural and historical aspects of Pakistan as is doing my ex: colleague Mr. Asif Raza Morio.

        1. First time I cam to know about Sindhi Quilt and its maker Sindhi women in such exclusive way in this article of Asif Raza Morio that I felt proud to be Sindhi in this connection also that the roots of our culture goes centuries back.
          Thanks to those who are working for promotion of history, culture, society and civilizations.

  2. Asif Raza Morio
    Celebrated history researcher
    Asif Raza Morio is a Pakistani author, Drama writer, Historian, Biographer, Archaeologist, Social writer, philanthropist and communal reviewer. He has continuing interest in history, environment, religion, archaeology, music, culture and traditions. He is the Editor of International Magazine Jewel Time, and panel editor of various newspapers and magazines. In the course of his effective writings Asif Raza has become a leading progressive historian and social voice of the age. His book MoenJo Daro, Mysterious city of Indus valley Civilization (2007), has brought into light the new visions of Indus Valley civilization. It is a praiseworthy and most reliable script about ancient history of Sindh. Asif has written more than 30 books and over 500 research articles, book reviews, and bibliographies, published in cerebral periodicals and Newspapers. He has contributed to the Encyclopedia of Britannica concerning few history topics. Since February 2006, he has served as a contributing correspondent for the National Geographic Channel. For the online network he was selected in 2005 as the editor for the history section and UNESCO’s select group of 100 international scholar intellectuals of the World.
    Asif Raza is:
    • Chairman Indus Cultural and Literary Organization (ICLO)
    • Managing Director Sambara Travels and Tours
    • President The Helpers
    • Founder. Moenjo Daro, Boys Scouts (Open Group)
    • Member. Liberal Forum Pakistan
    • Member Children Rights Comission
    • Member SPARK
    • Member Sindhi Shaan
    Selected books
    • On the Foot Steps of Nero
    • Moenjo Daro, Mysterious City of Indus Valley Civilization
    • Bhutto and International Media
    • Molana M. Qasim Mashori (Biography)
    • AIDS, Greatest Health Emergency of the world
    • Moriro’s Revenge from the Whale
    • New Vision of the History of Sindh
    Selected articles
    1. Hijras. (Third gender). (Urdu)
    2. Indus Jewel Technology. (English)
    3. Karo Kari (honor killing) (Urdu)
    4. Migratory Birds. (Urdu)
    5. Kala bagh Dam. (Urdu/Sindhi)
    6. Treasures of Kremlin. (English)
    7. Golden hoards of Bacteria. (English)
    8. Archaeological sites of Kirthar National Park. (Urdu)
    9. Evolution of human being. (Urdu)
    10. Moen jo Daro, the metropolitan city bronze age. (English/Urdu/Sindhi)
    11. Jhookar jo daro. (3000 old archaeological site Indus valley civilization.
    12. Earth Quake, Anger of Nature. (English)
    13. Environment pollution
    14. Murder of Mai Hawa. (Urdu)
    15. Lakhen jo daro. (3000 yrs old Indus historical site)
    16. Condition of child labor in Pakistan
    17. Commercial social workers and our society
    18. Slaughter of Indus Dolphin

  3. Download the original attachment

    Interview of Mr. Asif Ali Zardari. (Co-Chairmen of Pakistan People’s Party). January 2, 2008.
    Asif Raza Morio.

    Asif Ali Zardari was born in July 21, 1953 inside a prominent political family Zardari of Nawab Shah District. His father Hakim Ali Zardari is a notable landlord of Sindh Province and close associate of Mr. Zulfqar Ali Bhutto who has been stayed member of National and provincial assembly. Though Asif Ali Zardari was a wealthy businessman, landlord and constructor but he won international fame after getting marriage with Mrs. Benazir Bhutto On December 18, 1987, at the Clifton Palace garden in Karachi.
    After announce of the marriage on July 29, 1987, Asif sent Benazir roses every day and gave her a heart shaped ring of diamonds and sapphires. I still remember she wore a white silk tunic with gold-embroidery whereas Asif dressed in a turban and cream-colored tunic. Although their wedding ceremony was small and private, in the streets after their nuptial there were more than one hundred thousand people dancing, enjoying different performances and firing guns in the air.
    Asif proved a good companion of Benazir Bhutto in gory reasons of Pakistan politics; he also enjoyed the minister for investment in the mid 1990s; and than Senator. Their loving companionship endured eight years separation due to Asif’s imprisonment in jail on various charges, but was never convicted in addition the parting due to Benazir’s politics which finally ended with her on December 27, 2007. Asif Zardari and Benazir Bhutto have a son Bilawal and two daughters Bakhtawar and Asifa. Bilawal was born in 21 September 1988 and studying in Christ Church, Oxford after the death of his mother, Benazir, Bilawal assumed the office of co-chairman with his father, Asif, of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) 30 December 2007.
    Asif Raza Morio.

    Asif Raza Morio.
    Asif sahib first all thanks for giving time in the midst of angst affairs and busy political activities.
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    I believe media is supporting friend of political workers; you are most welcome any time.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    What would you say about current situation of Pakistan Peoples party?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    This is a hard inspection of nature for us all and a huge setback for democracy in struggling Pakistan. Let us try and pray to go victorious through the challenge of terrorism which has taken the life our chairmen and made poor masses hopeless. We will fight for restoration of democracy, freedom of speech, and provisions of basic life to all etc: for what Benazir Bhutto has been assassinated.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    At present you have chair once BB have had, do you suppose yourself as best change?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    Benazir Bhutto had a superior stature than a person like me could ever hope to be. She’s got immense self-confidence and has channeled the largest democracy in the world. I can’t perhaps look forward to measure up myself to her rather I will proud to follow her directions in proper way.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    Do you think elections will be fair?
    aAsif Ali Zardari.
    Tyrants will attempt their best to win over democratic rule but we should not have to check out of the grounds for them and should go on with struggle for optimistic state of affairs.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    What will you choice first if win the battle?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    Priority will be given to restoration of democracy, peace, human rights plus provision of basic needs for common people and rustication of extremism or fanaticism.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    What do you think about the government’s claims regarding involvement of Al-Qaida?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    It is all to hide their weaknesses; soon the chickens will lay the eggs. Where blame on Al Qaeda is concerned they have nothing to fright; why would they fear or target us?
    Asif Raza Morio.
    When Al-Qaida etc: denied for the same than why officials are insisting to put the blame on those?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    I already said they simply want to grubby the waters.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    .What do you say about the claim of people that Bilawal is too young and inexperienced for the Chairmanship of party?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    He is going to be of twenties now and this is reasonable age for responsibilities. I think maturity does not come with age but with education and nourishment. We had thousand lesions from history that young proved themselves better then old. Once these similar type of people put same blame on Mohtarma Benazir that She was too juvenile for Chairmen of party and Prime Minister ship of Pakistan but world saw how bravely she handle the affairs. Any way we are preparing Bilawal for the circumstances coming ahead. When he will complete his studies and after his graduation he grows more mature to join the party and work for his people.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    Selection of Bilawal was party’s choice or in better interests of the country?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    Certainly it was selection of party heads and also was in the best takings for country. The verdict to assign Bilawal was taken collectively by fifty two important party leaders and all of them agreed upon it. Non of them oppose the leadership of young Bilawal, perhaps the reason for that was that they already had a successful young leadership when BB hand over the party in past. In fact they were happier … If that’s not egalitarian, what is? The party has gone into a very antagonistic form; People are talking about betrayal about the country, shouting that ’We’ve had enough of these generals, let’s go for all-out war’. In order to keep that cohesiveness, to conduit that irritation into a democratic energy, one has to give them a symbol that belongs to her which not only control their boiling temperament but would also give them a new hope? That is actually the reason behind Bilawal’s choice.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    Do you hope that Bilawal will prolong this situation in future?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    I am sure he is capable to handle all the situations because he is no more very young but grew well-informed and responsible. Politically he is inheritor of esteemed Benazir Bhutto; and that is the reason so as to party essentials decided his chairmanship through consensus.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    Most friends of Bhutto family are worried about Bilawal’s security, are you doing something especial regarding this?
    Asif Ali Zardari..
    Certainly yes we are trying our best; preventatively we are trying to minimise his expose politically as he can board his education serenely.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    Benazir Sahiba did not name her son as successor, do you like your children go in barren grounds of Pakistani politics?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    If we leave barren fields deserted for more wretchedness then how seeds of happiness will fertilize. If there’s no permanence, you do not exist; only in continuity do you exist. I’m sure she would have it in her mind that one day her children would become heir, not this kind of impulsive and unfriendly Pakistan but a better one like the dreams of common masses.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    Is that true that government and people’s party had any covenant or talks of transaction etc?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    We Have had offers from those and channel of communication took place but all was not for any share in government or personal loaves and fishes but such dialogues for us as leading party in opposition were the part of politics. They talk with BB, they converse with our people even they sent their heralds to me in prison but we denied their proposals because of their offers which we found against interest of common masses. We utter with them on restoration of democracy, for re-establishment of human rights, restitution of basic needs and conclusion of dictatorship. If we had to make a deal we should have to compact in past why now when general is in dwindling position and we are marching ahead.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    What will be your policy concerning India and America?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    During our both regimes we tried to be good neighbor with adjoining countries and undertook to solve disputed and disrupted affairs always. Subsequently we will follow policies to enhance friendly relations not only with bordering countries but all over the world. We will hope same harmonious interaction with US and India as we can be helpful partners in the global societies.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    Most of the time you talk about coalition government, if need occurred will you support this system?
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    If your question leaning towards present autocracy we will not be converted into part of any tyrannical absolute rule. But in customary politics and constitutional regulation power sharing has perceptions and Pakistan Peoples party will consider the option regarding the assurance of restitution of democracy.
    Asif Raza Morio.
    Thanks again Sir, for sparing your precious time for your magazine and Allah Hafiz.
    Asif Ali Zardari.
    Same to you Mr. Asif Good Bye.

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